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論文中文名稱:水庫集水區水質與魚類生態系統模擬之研究 [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
論文英文名稱:Modeling Water Quality and Fish Ecosystem in a Reservoir Watershed [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
院校名稱:臺北科技大學
學院名稱:工程學院
系所名稱:土木工程系土木與防災碩士班
畢業學年度:106
畢業學期:第二學期
出版年度:107
中文姓名:陳勁瑋
英文姓名:Jin-Wei Chen
研究生學號:103428075
學位類別:碩士
語文別:中文
口試日期:2018/07/30
論文頁數:140
指導教授中文名:朱子偉
口試委員中文名:朱子偉;陳世楷;譚智宏;侯善麟
中文關鍵詞:AQUATOX模式營養鹽SWAT模式水生生態魚類生物量
英文關鍵詞:AQUATOX ModelNutrientSWAT ModelAquatic ecosystemFish biomass
論文中文摘要:翡翠水庫集水區不僅為大臺北都會區主要水源地,上游水域亦提供遊憩休閒,豐富的水域生態提供魚類生長、棲息及繁殖。水庫集水區管理局自1988年起持續進行生態調查監測計畫,目的為調查水域生態與河川環境因子,並將調查結果作為水域生態環境評判之依據。然而長期的生態調查過程不僅耗費大量人力、物力與時間,對於大規模的集水區而言,空間多樣性的變化也增加調查的困難。因此,透過水生生態系統模式的模擬,評估不同水文、地文及管理條件下水質與魚類生態之變化,可以輔助監測資料之不足,並提供環境與生物資源管理的有用資訊。
本研究旨為應用AQUATOX模式模擬集水區上游溪流水質與魚類生態並評估模式之適用性。AQUATOX為一個水生生態系統模式,可模擬多種水域汙染物的變化以及汙染物對魚類、無脊椎動物和水生植物的影響。研究首先收集翡翠水庫集水區1995至2014年氣象、地文、水文及水質資料,應用SWAT(Soil and Water Assessment Tool)模式評估集水區上游陸域之逕流與營養鹽負荷量,再輸入至AQUATOX進行河溪水質與魚類生物量模擬,並探討水生生態模式於台灣集水區的適用性。
研究結果顯示,AQUATOX於營養鹽之月模擬表現均十分合理,特別是總氮,其效率係數可達0.6以上。魚類生物量模擬以香魚及明潭吻鰕虎最好,根據統計檢定結果顯示,其實測與模擬之資料分布平均值與變異數均無顯著差異。而脂鮠、台灣石𩼧、圓吻鯝、平頷鱲及台灣纓口鰍之變異數結果稍差,但若進一步檢視F statistics vs. Relative bias對照圖,其實測與模擬皆能有95%的機率為相似的資料分布,顯示模式能有效合理的模擬魚類生物量變化。整體而言,AQUATOX模式對長期的溪流水質與魚類生物量有相當合理及滿意的模擬能力。研究結果可提供環境決策者作為汙染管制或改善措施的參考,並可同時評估水域生態之變化,以有效管理生物族群與執行保育工作,達到生物資源永續利用之目的。
論文英文摘要:Not only does the Feitsui reservoir watershed preserve the domestic water resource to the Great Taipei Metropolitan area, but it also provides upstream water bodies for recreations and travels. Moreover, it facilitates the prosperous aquatic ecosystem that creates natural habitats for numerous species of fishes to grow and reproduce. To measure several aquatic environmental factors and assess ecosystem for appropriate living, management authority has carried out the continuous aquatic ecological survey. However, comprehensive water quality monitoring and aquatic ecological survey at watershed scale are usually unpractical, especially in spatially diverse watershed due to their expensive and time-consuming characteristics. Therefore, mathematical water quality and ecosystem modeling may apply to make up for the insufficient monitoring data and provide more detailed information to decision maker for effective environmental management of biological resources.
This study aims to apply SWAT (Soil and water Assessment Tool) model for generating runoff and nutrient loadings from watershed upland and employ an aquatic ecosystem model, AQUATOX, to assess the variation of water quality and fish biomasses. The capability of AQUATOX model for applying in Taiwan aquatic ecosystem is investigated as well. The AQUATOX model simulates the fate of various pollutants and their effects on the ecosystem, including fish, invertebrates, and aquatic plants. First, data of climate, physiographic, hydrologic and water quality from year 1995 to 2014 within Feitsui reservoir watershed were collected for SWAT model’s calibration and validation. Additionally, seven species of fishes were similated by AQUATOX in comparison to the observing data for model’s ecaluation.
The results show that AQUATOX performs reasonable monthly nutrient predictions, especially for the total nitrogen with satisfactory efficiency coefficient of over 0.6. Furthermore, Goby and Sweetfish simulations in AQUATOX show the best performance amomg all fishes. The distributions of observing and modeling data present on significant differences in mean and standard deviation via statistical hypothesis test. Predictions of Bagrid catfish, Taiwan torrent carp, Round snout, Pale chub, and River loach show bigger differences in standard deviations in comparison to observation data. However, the scattered plots of F statistics vs. Relative Bias imply that the simulating and monitoring data distributions of these five fishes are similar with 95% probability. It is concluded that the AQUATOX model performs reasonable fish biomass predictions, especially the highly uncertainty within sampling and modeling taking into consideration. Overall, the simulations of the AQUATOX model in steram water quality and biomass of fishes in Feitsui reservoir watershed show promising results in response to field realities. The accomplishments of this study provide a better decision making guidance for watershed managements in order to control water quality and assess the biomass variation of ecosystem, which leads to effectively conserve and manage the biological resources for sustainable availability.
論文目次:摘 要 i
ABSTRACT iii
誌 謝 v
目 錄 vi
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2研究動機 2
1.3研究目的 3
1.4研究架構及流程 4
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1翡翠水庫水質與魚類 6
2.2 AQUATOX模式之應用 13
第三章 研究方法 16
3.1 SWAT模式 16
3.2 AQUATOX模式 20
3.2.1模式沿革 20
3.2.2模式介紹 21
3.2.2.1狀態變量 22
3.2.2.2參數庫 23
3.2.3模式結構 24
3.2.3.1物理模擬 24
3.2.3.2生物模擬 29
3.2.3.3再礦化模擬 37
3.3研究區域 45
3.4模擬架構 46
3.4.1推估集水區陸域之逕流與營養鹽負荷 46
3.4.2 SWAT模式推估方法 46
3.4.3 AQUATOX模式分段模擬 53
3.5資料蒐集 54
3.5.1上游溪流地文資料 54
3.5.2上游溪流水文與氣象資料 54
3.5.3上游溪流水質資料 55
3.5.3上游溪流魚類資料 56
3.5.4食物網設置 58
3.6配適度指標 60
第四章 結果與討論 63
4.1 SWAT模式檢定驗證結果 63
4.1.1坪林站流量 67
4.1.2坪林站泥砂 69
4.1.3營養鹽模擬 71
4.2 AQUATOX模式參數檢定結果 81
4.2.1水質模擬結果 82
4.2.2藻類模擬結果 105
4.2.3魚類模擬結果 109
4.2.4水質與魚類相關性 128
4.2.5 AQUATOX模式小結 128
第五章 結論與建議 129
5.1結論 129
5.2建議 130
參考文獻 132
附錄A:魚類照片 136
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