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論文中文名稱:以垂線最大流速推估河川流量 [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
論文英文名稱:Estimation of Discharge by Using Maximum Velocity on Vertical [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
院校名稱:臺北科技大學
學院名稱:工程學院
系所名稱:土木工程系土木與防災碩士班
畢業學年度:106
畢業學期:第二學期
出版年度:107
中文姓名:陳威綸
英文姓名:Wei-Lun Chen
研究生學號:105428083
學位類別:碩士
語文別:中文
口試日期:2018/07/24
論文頁數:182
指導教授中文名:陳彥璋
指導教授英文名:Yen-Chang Chen
口試委員中文名:蘇志強;洪健豪;楊翰宗
中文關鍵詞:指標流速流量量測流速分佈理論
英文關鍵詞:Discharge MeasurementIndex-Velocity MethodChiu`s Velocity Distribution
論文中文摘要:河川流量資料相當寶貴,可為供水利工程、洪水演算及事件決策等之重要參考依據。傳統的流量量測法耗力且費時,就感潮河段而言,其區域銜接海洋,受潮汐影響,河口水位一日之內變化極大,流速也受漲退潮之影響,漲潮時出現逆流,退潮流速加快,致觀測之準確性不高。另外,於暴雨造成之高流量,其水大湍急,風勢甚大,工作環境惡劣而增加量測的危險性,因而造成極大的量測困難。本研究量測淡水河之關渡橋,以聲波都普勒流速儀配合GPS量測淡水河於關渡之流速剖面及通水斷面積,並以機率為基礎之流速分佈理論,推求測線之平均流速與最大流速、測線平均流速與斷面平均流速之關係,另建立水位與通水斷面之關係,並選用較靠近河岸之流速測線作為指標流速推估之斷面平均流速,與推估之通水斷面積相乘得出流量,結果顯示與中斷面法計算之流量相近。研究另以萬丹圳之資料做流量之推估,結果亦非常良好,證明此流量推估法可應用於天然河道及人工渠道。
論文英文摘要:The flow data of a river is quite valuable, which can provide an important basis for water supply projects, flood calculations and event decisions. The traditional flow measurement is laborious and time consuming, In the tidal section, the river estuary area connects the ocean and affected by the tide stream. The water level in the estuary varies greatly within one day, and the flow rate is also affected by the rise and fall, the countercurrent happen during the high tide, and the speed of the retreat is accelerated. Due to these characteristics, the tidal river section is not accurate enough for traditional flow observation. In addition, the high flow caused by heavy rain, the flood is immediatrly and the wind is strong, the working environment is poor and the risk of measurement is increased, which makes it extremely difficult to measure.
The study used the ADP and GPS system install on board to measure discharge for complete tidal in the Tanshui River. And accurate calculation of discharge by Chiu`s velocity distribution and the mid-section method. Then the data are used to establish an efficient method of discharge measurement in tidal streams, by relationship between mean velocity and maximum velocity and relationship between water level and cross-section area. The study also uses the data of Wandan Waterway to make discharge estimates. This efficient method can be used with any current meter to reduce the time and cost of discharge measurement in natural rivers and artificial channels.
論文目次:摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌謝 iv
目錄 v
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2 研究動機及目的 1
1.3論文架構流程簡介 2
第二章 流量量測方法及計算 4
2.1 一般河川流量觀測方法 4
2.1.1流速-面積法 4
2.1.2坡降-面積法 6
2.1.3水位-流量率定曲線法 8
2.1.4浮標法 9
2.2 感潮河段流量觀測方法 11
2.2.1旋杯式流速儀觀測方法 11
2.2.2 聲波都普勒流速儀觀測方法 13
2.3 通水斷面量測 14
2.4 感潮河段流量推估 14
第三章 流量觀測儀器 17
3.1 旋杯式流速儀 17
3.2 電磁式流速儀 18
3.3聲波都普勒流速儀 19
3.3.1 ACDP量測原理 19
3.3.2 ADCP量測基本運作 21
3.3.3 ADCP種類 24
第四章 研究理論 30
4.1 流速分佈理論 30
4.1.1 熵理論之機率流速分佈 30
4.1.2垂線流速分佈及最大流速位置之推求 32
4.2 水位-通水斷面積率定公式 34
第五章 研究分析 35
5.1研究區域概述 35
5.1.1 淡水河流域 35
5.1.2屏東縣萬丹圳 36
5.2 實際測量資料概述 37
5.2.1 淡水河流域 37
5.2.2屏東縣萬丹圳 38
5.3 資料分析 41
5.3.1 固定測線推求 41
5.3.2平均流速與最大流速 42
5.3.3垂線平均流速與斷面平均流速 56
5.3.4 水位-通水斷面之關係 66
5.3.5 流量推估之驗證 67
5.4 可靠度分析 71
第六章 結論與建議 75
6.1結論 75
6.2建議 75
參考文獻 76
附錄 79
符號彙編 181
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