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論文中文名稱:整合WSN與BIM技術建置營建工地安全監控與管理模式與系統之研究 [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
論文英文名稱:Developing Construction Site Safety Monitoring and Management Model and System Integrated WSN and BIM Technologies [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
院校名稱:臺北科技大學
學院名稱:工程學院
系所名稱:土木工程系土木與防災博士班
畢業學年度:105
畢業學期:第二學期
中文姓名:莊文楓
英文姓名:Weng-Fong Cheung
研究生學號:100429001
學位類別:博士
語文別:中文
口試日期:2017/07/19
指導教授中文名:林祐正
指導教授英文名:Yu-Cheng Lin
口試委員中文名:曾惠斌;陳鴻銘;陳維東;黃盈樺;李欣運
中文關鍵詞:環境監控施工安全危害氣體
英文關鍵詞:WSNZigbeeBIMEnvironment monitoringConstruction safetyHazardous gases
論文中文摘要:諸多營建工程意外災害發生的原因,常受限於人力不足導致無法有效監控。營建工程開挖作業環境常為地下或局限空間,不僅工作區域常為高溫、高濕環境,亦可能存在有毒氣體並對人員造成潛在危害,尤其高濃度可燃性氣體洩漏可能導致嚴重爆炸及人員死亡,造成難以評估的災害與損失。
本研究運用WSN (Wireless sensor networks)無線網路感測技術並結合BIM (Building information modeling)技術,開發危害氣體安全管理系統(WSN & BIM Safety Management System, WBSMS),將Zigbee感測器佈建於地下作業施工環境或跟隨人員移動,收集作業環境中危害氣體(例如甲烷、可燃性氣體等)以及溫、濕度等資訊,並藉由WSN自組之網路回傳至地面監控中心,而後將所收集之資訊與BIM模型整合,藉由BIM元件即時顏色變化顯示各區域之危害氣體及溫、濕度等狀況,管理人員亦可經由遠端登入系統,即時監控工地作業環境狀況。
所開發系統於平時可持續收集人員環境資訊與監控危害氣體狀況;一旦緊急狀況發生時,BIM模型上會立即以紅色亮顯危害區域,使管理者能立即瞭解危害位置並展開應變。此外系統所設計之節點智慧化功能亦會自動啟動警報器及閃光警示人員疏散,以及抽風設備來排除危害氣體;而人員於搶救時無須進入工地即可掌握危害氣體分布狀況,研判風險區域並展開搶救行動。
經實測結果顯示,所開發之WSN危害氣體監測系統具有快速設置、免於線路佈設並易於維護之優點;BIM視覺化介面可改善使用者管理效能,有利於工地提升安全管理與改善區域的監控;節點智慧化功能於偵測危害氣體時主動警示並立即排除,避免危害擴大釀成嚴重災禍。系統導入後不僅能提升工地安全管理效能,減少監控所需資源與成本,更有助於緊急狀況之決策,提升人員作業安全。
論文英文摘要:There are many construction accidents caused because of hazardous gases. Generally, the hazardous gases is not monitored and traced easily specially in the construction sites. In order to enhance performance of the construction safety for workers, this study develops a hazardous gas management system for general contractors by integrating Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and Building Information Modeling (BIM) technologies. Many Zigbee sensor nodes are placed in underground construction site or staff which collect the hazardous gas (methane, smoke) and environmental conditions (temperature and humidity). The data will be sent to the monitoring station on ground by Zigbee self-constituted network and then integrate with the BIM model. The monitoring conditions of different areas can be presented using BIM model. The BIM model provides a useful tool to monitor the conditions of hazardous gas, temperature and humidity conditions at construction site. Additionally, the function of proposed approach and system will trig the flash alarm for warning the persons to evacuate and start the exhaust fan automatically to draw out the hazardous gases. The managers and engineers can access the site status without entering the hazardous area and making effective decisions in advance.
Finally, the proposed approach and system were applied in selected two case studies of Taiwan construction projects to verify our proposed methodology. The system not only improves the efficiency of site safety management, but also contributes to the emergency decision-making and greatly enhances the safety of site workers. Finally, this study identifies conclusion, suggestion, benefits, and limitations for further applications.
論文目次:目 錄

摘要 i
ABSTRACT iii
目 錄 vii
表目錄 x
圖目錄 xii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究範圍 4
1.4 研究方法 4
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1 無線感測器網路 6
2.1.1 感測器 6
2.1.2 無線感測器網路 7
2.1.3 無線感測器硬體架構 8
2.1.4 無線感測器網路之特色 10
2.1.5 無線感測器網路設計 11
2.2 Zigbee無線網路技術 13
2.2.1 Zigbee技術介紹 13
2.2.2 Zigbee技術優勢 16
2.2.3 Zigbee堆疊協定 16
2.2.4 Zigbee網路位址分配演算法 24
2.3 BIM技術 28
2.3.1 BIM定義與介紹 28
2.3.2 IFC於環境監控相關分類標準 30
2.3.3 BIM於環境監控之應用 31
2.3.4 BIM二次開發 34
2.4 WSN與BIM相關文獻 36
2.4.1 相關文獻 36
2.4.2 文獻分析 39
第三章 營建地下作業施工安全管理探討 41
3.1 地下施工作業與危害氣體 41
3.2 危害氣體管理相關法規 45
3.3 營建地下工地施工安全管理需求 47
3.3.1 施工作業氣體之調查與試驗 47
3.3.2 可燃性氣體之安全管理 49
第四章 系統規劃與設計 52
4.1 系統開發流程 52
4.2 使用者需求分析 53
4.3 系統架構與分析 54
4.3.1 系統架構 54
4.3.2 系統分析 55
4.4 感測器硬體設計 58
4.4.1 嵌入式系統(SoC) 58
4.4.2 氣體感測元件 59
4.4.3 DHT-11溫度感測器元件 60
4.4.4 Zigbee無線傳輸模組 61
4.4.5 硬體整合 62
4.5 感測器網路規劃 64
4.6 系統設置流程分析 65
4.6.1 交替功能流程分析 65
4.6.2 WSN應用於工地安全管理之情境模式 68
第五章 系統建置 73
5.1 系統開發環境 73
5.2 WSN感測節點的開發與設置 76
5.2.1 協調器節點 77
5.2.2 感測器節點 79
5.2.3 路由器節點 83
5.2.4 控制器節點 84
5.3 WSN設備測試 87
5.3.1 感測器氣體濃度校正 87
5.3.2 WSN組網與智慧化功能測試 89
5.3.3 節點資料傳輸測試 91
5.3.4 節點傳輸距離性能測試 93
(一) 水平傳輸距離測試 93
(二) 垂直傳輸高度測試 95
(三) 地下樓層綜合測試 98
5.3.5 傳輸性能結果彙整 105
5.4 BIM模型建構 106
5.5 BIM與WSN資料整合 107
5.6 系統建置展示 110
5.6.1 系統化節點資訊: 111
5.6.2 視覺化整合管理介面 112
5.6.3 智慧化功能 114
5.6.4 資訊管理系統 114
第六章 案例研討 116
6.1 營造工地測試(案例一) 116
6.2 隧道測試(案例二) 119
6.3 系統評估與討論 124
第七章 結論與建議 128
7.1 結論 128
7.2 建議 129
7.3 後續研究建議 129
參考文獻 130
附錄A、專家訪談紀錄 136
附錄B、節點程式碼範例 143
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