現在位置首頁 > 博碩士論文 > 詳目
論文中文名稱:銀行併購與組織變革─以TBB為例 [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
論文英文名稱:Mergers & Acquisitions and Organizational Change in Banking ─ A Case Study of TBB [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
院校名稱:臺北科技大學
學院名稱:管理學院
系所名稱:管理學院經營管理EMBA專班
畢業學年度:101
出版年度:102
中文姓名:林增壽
英文姓名:Tzeng-Show Lin
研究生學號:100c22505
學位類別:碩士
語文別:中文
口試日期:2013-06-07
論文頁數:124
指導教授中文名:林鳳儀
口試委員中文名:謝金賢;陳國樑
中文關鍵詞:併購組織變革衝突管理危機管理銀行
英文關鍵詞:Mergers & AcquisitionsOrganizational ChangeConfrontation ManagementCrisis Managementbanking
論文中文摘要:在政府考量加入WTO金融市場開放後,國內金融應朝大型化國際化發展,以增加金融業競爭力。TBB配合政府推出組織改造以因應第一次金改258政策,卻又被指定為第二次金改被併購之對象。不料引發TBB工會發動台灣金融史上第一遭的罷工活動,使得二次金改為之頓挫。
八年過去,金融機構併購的討論再一次點燃;顯然是一個合適的時機點讓我們再一次檢視環境、政府、管理階層和勞工各面向在這議題上值得深思之處。本論文試圖從多重面向仔細檢視併購的一些主因,以及利害關係人的觀點,深入討論金融改革下併購的問題;讓學生藉由實務與理論相互驗證:
一、 TBB併購的動機為何。
二、 分析此次TBB併購失敗的原因。
三、 分析TBB員工對組織變革抗拒原因,並從高階管理者立場衡量應如何因應。
四、 從員工的基本權利,討論罷工的合法性。
五、 從TBB高階管理者的立場,探討TBB所發生的衝突及解決方法。
六、 從TBB高階管理者的立場,提出應如何因應此次罷工事件。
七、 本個案中是否存在代理人問題。
八、 試討論台灣公股代表所扮演的角色。
論文英文摘要:After Taiwan was admitted to WTO, the financial market opened up. For Taiwanese financial institutions to be competitive, they would have to expand to larger sizes. Therefore the government began to consider launching “The Second Financial Transformation Plan”. The first one was put forth in 2004
In “The First Financial Transformation Plan”, Taiwan Business Bank aimed to achieve a policy called “258”. In response to the policy, TBB forged a restructuring scheme. In the second one, TBB was targeted to be merged by another bank. Its labor union reacted with a strike that was the first strike ever happened in the country’s financial history. The consequence of the strike was the cessation of the Second Plan.
Eight years on, the discussion of merger & acquisition are rekindled again. It is a propitious time to re-examine the considerations of the environment, the government, the management, and the labor of that time. This study tries to scrutinize from the perspective of shareholders the various aspects and major factors involved in merger & acquisition. The following issues are worth inspecting infuture merger & acquisition cases.
1. What motives the merger & acquisition of TBB.
2. The analysis on the causes of failure in the TBB case.
3. The analysis on the causes of the resistance of the employers, and from the perspective of higher management, the responses to the resistance.
4. The discussion on the legality of a strike, from the perspective of the fundamental rights to employers.
5. The responses of the strike, from the perspective of the higher management.
6. The inspection of confrontations and solutions in TBB’s case, from the perspective of the higher management.
7. Problems involved in the representatives.
8. The discussion on the role played by the representatives of the government shareholders.
論文目次:摘 要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌 謝 iv
目 錄 v
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1. 研究背景 1
1.2. 研究目的與研究問題 4
1.3. 研究架構 6
第二章 文獻探討 7
2.1. 併購 7
2.1.1. 併購的定義 7
2.1.2. 併購的種類 8
2.1.3. 併購的動機 11
2.1.4. 併購的成功與失敗因素 14
2.2. 組織變革 16
2.2.1. 組織變革的原因 16
2.2.2. 員工抗拒組織變革的原因 17
2.2.3. 解決員工抗拒的方法 19
2.3. 衝突管理 21
2.3.1. 衝突的定義、發生原因與類型 21
2.3.2. 衝突的過程 23
2.3.3. 衝突管理策略 30
2.4. 危機管理 33
2.4.1. 危機的定義與來源 33
2.4.2. 危機管理的程序 34
2.4.3. 危機管理策略 36
2.5. 代理理論 37
2.5.1. 代理問題與代理成本 37
2.5.2. 代理問題與股權結構關係 40
第三章 個案內容 42
3.1. 引言 42
3.1.1. TBB簡介 43
3.1.2. 第一次金融改革 46
3.2. TBB組織變革 47
3.3. 二次金融改革─台灣銀行業概況 58
3.3.1. 銀行工會 59
3.3.2. TBB工會 61
3.4. 議題的出現 62
3.5. 罷工事件 67
3.5.1. 罷工投票與最後周旋 72
3.5.2. 罷工行動 76
3.6. 後記 81
第四章 教學手冊 86
4.1. 適用之教學領域及議題 86
4.1.1. 教學對象 86
4.1.2. 核心議題 86
4.1.3. 涉及的議題 86
4.1.4. 教學科目 86
4.1.5. 個案綱要 87
4.2. 個案討論的議題 88
4.2.1. TBB的合併動機 88
4.2.2. TBB合併失敗的原因 91
4.2.3. TBB的組織變革、組織抗拒及解決方法 94
4.2.4. 員工的基本權利與合法罷工 97
4.2.5. TBB的衝突管理策略 101
4.2.6. TBB的危機管理能力 103
4.2.7. 代理問題 106
4.2.8. 台灣的法人代表制度 109
參考文獻 115
論文參考文獻:中文
[1] 丁淑華,民營化變革認知與離職意願關係之研究—以中華電信員工為例,碩士論文,國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所,1999。
[2] 方至民、鍾憲瑞,策略管理-建立企業永續競爭力,臺北:前程圖書出版有限公司,2006。
[3] 王文宇,世界主要國家併購相關法律規定之比較,經濟情勢暨評論,1998年8月,第60-102頁。
[4] 王鶴松,金融危機與金融改革,臺北:財團法人台灣金融研訓院。2005年。
[5] 行政院金融督監管理委員會,行政院金融督監管理委員會九十四年年報,臺北:行政院金融督監管理委員會,2006 。
[6] 行政院經濟建設委員會,「金融改革與因應策略」研討會結案報告,2005 年。
[7] 余尚武、江玉柏,影響企業購併成敗之因素與策略探討,經濟情勢暨評論,第四卷,第二期,1998年8月,第125-146頁。
[8] 吳定,組織發展理論與技術,臺北:天一圖書公司,1984。
[9] 吳奎新,勞工權益─例解勞動基準法,永然文化出版股份有限公司,1992。
[10] 吴宏洛,轉形期的和諧勞動關係,社會科學文獻出版社,2007。
[11] 李明才,台灣金融控股公司發展與併購之研究,東吳大學法律學研究所,碩士論文,2006。
[12] 李允傑,當前金融業的困境、危機與出路,財團法人國家政策基金研究會,2008。
[13] 杜玉振、林東和、涂登才、蔡知敏,同業、異業購併與金融控股公司之營運綜效,台灣金融財務季刊,第8卷,第1期,2007,第1-28頁。
[14] 汪明生、朱斌妤、王萬清、王維賢、邱文彥、葛應欽,衝突管理,臺北:五南圖書出版有限公司,2000。
[15] 周蕙平,危機管理之研究,中國文化大學政治學研究所,碩士論文,1995 。
[16] 林振春,衝突管理理論及其在團體中的應用,社會教育學刊,第22 期,1993,第73-106 頁。
[17] 林盟城,析論金融產業之購併活動,產業金融季刊,1997,第38-48頁。
[18] 林瑞唐,變革中如何處理員工的抗拒?-『3I』的策略,能力雜誌,第508期,1998,第18-19頁。
[19] 胡浩叡,股份有限公司內部機關之研究-以權限分配與公司治理為中心,國立台灣大學法律學研究所,碩士論文,2002,第 28頁。
[20] 胡勝正、何美玥、洪瑞彬,台灣總體經濟發展評析與展望,台灣經濟論衡,第1 卷,第10 期,2003 年10 月,第1-28頁。
[21] 殷乃平,對我國金融體制改革的建言,臺北:遊氏印刷,1998 年。
[22] 商永齡,組織變革理論對教育行政組織再造之啟示與應用,學校行政,第25期,2003,第 11-25頁。
[23] 張力元,從花旗收購僑銀之案例探討併購案的動機與過程,國立交通大學企業管理研究所,碩士論文,2008。
[24] 張玉山、楊芳玲、羅亦峻、何金燕、李嘉銘,如何加強公營事業的公司治理,行政院研究發展考核委員會編印,2005。
[25] 陳宏吉,台糖公司事業部組織變革與員工認知之研究,碩士論文,國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所,2002。
[26] 陳宗佑,從勞動基本權談公用事業人員之罷工權,銘傳大學法律研究所,碩士論文,2009。
[27] 陳宛玲,銀行組織變革下勞工行使爭議權之研究─以2005年台企銀工會罷工案為例,碩士論文,國立中正大學勞工研究所,2006。
[28] 陳淑貞,分析購併後人事策略變革與員工滿意度之關係-以我國商業銀行購併信合社為例,光武學報,第25 卷,2002,第731-763頁。
[29] 陳淑華,銀行購併前後之績效評估 : 台灣金融業之探討,碩士論文,銘傳大學金融研究所,2000。
[30] 陳嘉皇,國民小學學校組織衝突管理之研究,國立屏東師範學院國民教育研究所,碩士論文,1996。
[31] 陳漢坡,探討台灣電子產業水平購併對財務經營績效之影響-以三家特定電子公司為例,碩士論文,中原大學企業管理學研究所,2003。
[32] 陳繼盛,勞工法論文集,陳林法學文教基金會,1994 年。
[33] 游淦皓,企業合併終止個案的比較研究,碩士論文,國立中山大學企業管理研究所,2001。
[34] 焦興鍇,勞工法制之最新發展趨勢,美國勞工法論文集(二),月旦出版社,1997。
[35] 馮根福,雙重委托代理理論:上市公司治理的另一種分析框架-兼論進一步完善中國上市公司治理的新思路,經濟研究,第12 期,2004, 18-22頁。
[36] 黃天麟,重思金融併購的功與過,收錄於禿鷹的晚餐-金融併購的社會後果,臺北:銀行員全聯會,2005。
[37] 黃程貫,我國罷工合法要件之探討,月旦法學雜誌,第107 期,2004,第46-58頁。
[38] 黃瑞明,落後的罷工法制,反動的意識形態,月旦法學雜誌,第107 期,2004。
[39] 楊通軒,爭議行為合法性之判斷基準—最高法院84 年度台上字第1074 號民事判決評釋,勞動法裁判選輯,月旦出版社,1998 。
[40] 溫世仁,你能懂東亞金融風暴,臺北:大塊文化,1998 年。
[41] 廖大穎,評公司法第27 條法人董事制度-從台灣高等法院91 年度上字第870 號與板橋地方法院91 年度訴字第218 號判決的啟發,月旦法學雜誌,第112 期,2004 年9 月,第 212頁。
[42] 廖國鋒、范淼、王湧水,從個體觀點探討組織成員因應組織變革之研究,管理學報,第19卷,第3期,2002, 第451-474頁。
[43] 臺企銀工會,團結從工會開始—0908台企銀工會罷工紀實,臺企銀產業工會,2008。
[44] 衛民,工會組織與勞工運動,國立空中大學,1994。
[45] 衛民、許繼峰,勞資關係—平衡效率與公平,臺北:前程文化事業有限公司,初版三刷,2008。
[46] 鄭津津,美國勞資爭議行為正當性之探討,台北大學論叢,第60 期,2006年12月,第80 頁。
[47] 鄧學良,勞資事務研究,五南圖書出版公司,初版,1993。
[48] 盧正昕,銀行業購併的實務與趨勢,華信金融季刊,第三期,臺北,1998。
[49] 薛琦、胡仲英,民營化政策的回顧與展望,周添城編,台灣民營化的經驗,臺北:中華徵信所,1998,第1-36頁。
英文
[50] Andrei Shleifer and Robert Vishny, “A Surrey of Corporate Governance,” The Journal of Finance, Vol.52, No.2, 1997, pp. 737-783.
[51] Anne H. Reilly, “Are Organizations Ready for Crisis? A Managerial Scorecard”, Columbia Journal of World Business, Spring 1987, pp.79-88.
[52] B. H. Raven and A. W. Kruglanski, Conflict and Power, Academic Press Inc., New York, 1970, pp. 69-109.
[53] B. Holmstrom and P. R. Milgrom, Aggregation and Linearity in the Provision of Intertemporal Incentives, Econometrica, Vol. 55, No.2, 1987, pp. 303-328.
[54] B. Holmstrom, “Moral hazard and observability,” Bell Journal of Economics, Vol. 10, No. 1, Spring 1979, pp. 74-91.
[55] B.J. Hodge and H. J. Johnson, Management and Organizational Behavior –A Multi dimensional Approach, N.Y: John Wiiley & Sons, 1970.
[56] C. F. Fink, “Some conceptual difficulties in the theory of social conflict,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 12, 1968, pp.12-60.
[57] C. M. Pearson, “A blueprint for crisis management,” Ivey Business Journal, vol. 66, no. 3, 2002, pp. 69-73.
[58] C. Richard Baker, Yuri Biondic and Qiusheng Zhang, “Disharmony in international accounting standards setting: The Chinese approach to accounting for business combinations,” Critical Perspectives on Accounting, vol. 21, 2010, pp.107–117.
[59] D. A. Nadler, “Managing Organization Change a Integrative Perspective” The Journal of Applied Behavior, vol. 22, 1981, pp. 191-221.
[60] D. C. Dunphy and D. A. Stace, “Transformational and Coercive Strategies for Planned Organizational Change: Beyond the OD Model,” Organization Studies, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1988, pp. 317-334.
[61] D. Nadler, M. Gerstein and R. Shaw, Organizational Architectures: Designs for Changing Organizations, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1992.
[62] D. Tjosvold, Conflict within interdependence: Its value for productivity and individuality, in De Dreu, C. K. W., & Van de Vliert E. (Eds), Using Conflict in Organization, Sage, London, 1997, pp.23-37.
[63] E. Berkovich and M. P. Narayanan, “Motives for takeovers: an empirical investigation,” The Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, vol. 28, no.3, 1993, pp. 342-367.
[64] E. T. Penrose, The theory of the growth of the firm, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1959.
[65] E.A. Gall, “Strategies for Merger Success”, Journal of Business Strategy, March/April, 1991, pp.26-29.
[66] Eugene F. Fama and Michael C. Jensen, “The Separation of Ownership and Control,” Journal of Law and Economics, vol.26, 1983, pp.301-325.
[67] F. Furlong, “New view of bank consolidation,” Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Economic Letter, July 1998.
[68] F. Harinck, C. K. W. De Dreu, and A. E. M. Van Vianen, “The impact of conflict issues on fixed-pie perceptions, problem solving, and integrative outcomes in negotiation,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 81, 2000, pp. 329-358.
[69] F. Trautwein, “Merger motives and merger prescriptions,” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 11, no.4, 1990, pp.283-295.
[70] F. Wijnhovena, T. Spila, R. Stegweea and R. Tjang A Fa, “Post-merger IT integration strategies: An IT alignment perspective,” Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol.15, 2006, pp.5-28.
[71] Fremont E. Kast and James E. Rosenzweig, Organization and management: A systems and contingency approach, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985.
[72] G. Watson, Resistance to Change, N.Y: Wiley, 1973.
[73] Giga Information Group, Anon., The business and IT summit: successful IT integration strategies for mergers acquisitions and beyond 1999 , 1999, pp. 18-19.
[74] H. J. Reitz, “Behavior in organization. Homewood, Liiinois: Richard D. Irwin, 1981, pp. 196-197.
[75] Heath Robert, “Dealing with the Complete Crisis-the Crisis Management Shell Structure”, Safety science, vol.30, 1998, pp.139-150.
[76] I. I. Mitroff and C. M. Pearson, Crisis management: A diagnostic guide for improving your organization's crisis-preparedness, San Francisco:Calif.: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1993.
[77] I. I. Mitroff, “Crisis management: Cutting through the confusion,” Sloan Management Review, vol. 29, no. 2, 1988, pp.15-20.
[78] J. C. Soper, “What’s Next for Consolidation in Banking?” Business Economics, April 2001, pp.39-43.
[79] J. E. McGrath, Groups: Interaction and performance, Prentice-Hall, NJ., 1984.
[80] J. Hallikas, I. Karvonen, U. Pulkkinen, V. Virolainen and M. Tuominen, “Risk Management Processes in Supplier Networks,” International Journal Production Economics, vol.90, 2004, pp.47-58.
[81] J. L. Gray and F. A. Starke, Organization behavior:Concepts and applications, Columbus, Ohio:Bell & Howell, 1984.
[82] J. Laue, The emergence and institutionalization of third party roles in conflict, In D. J. D. Sandole and I. Sandole-Staroste eds., Conflict management and problem solving, London: Frances Printer, 1987.
[83] J. M. Penrose, “The role of perception in crisis planning,” Public Relations Review, vol. 26, no. 2, 2000, pp.155-171.
[84] J. P. Kotter and L. A. Schlesingerr, “Choosing Strategies for Change,” Harvard Review, 1979, pp.106-114.
[85] J. Ullrich and R. van Dick, The group psychology of mergers & acquisitions: Lessons from the Social Identity Approach, in C. L. Cooper. and S. Finkelstein (eds.), Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions (vol.6). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 2007, 1-15.
[86] J. Weston and S. Weaver, Mergers and acquisitions, The McGraw-Hill Executive MBA Series, McGraw-Hill, 2001.
[87] J.W. Spiegel, A. Gart and S. Gart, Banking Redefined: How Superregional Powerhouses Are Reshaping Financial Services, Irwin, Chicago, 1996.
[88] Jane E. Dutton, “The Processing of Crisis and Non-crisis Strategic issues”, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 23, No.5, September, 1986, pp. 501-517.
[89] K. D Brouthers, P. V. Hastenburg and V. D. Joran, “If most mergers fail why are they so popular?” Long Range Planning, Vol.31, Iss.3, 1998, pp.347-353.
[90] K. D. Brouthers, P. V. Hastenburg and V. D. Joran, “If most mergers fail why are they so popular?,” Long Range Planning, Vol.31, Iss.3, 1998, pp.347-353.
[91] K. M. Ellis, T. H. Reus and B.T. Lamont, “The effects of procedural and informational justice in the integration of related acquisitions,” Strategic Management Journal, vol. 30, no. 2, 2009, pp. 137-161.
[92] K. N. Wexley and G. A. Yukl, Organizational behavior and personnel psychology, Illinois:Richard D. Irwin Inc, 1977.
[93] K. W. Thomas, Conflict and conflict management, In Marvin D. Dunnettle ed., Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, Chicago:Ran McNally Company, 1976.
[94] Karl E. Weick, “Enacted Sensemaking in Crisis Situation,” Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 25, No. 24, July 1988, pp. 305-317.
[95] L. Barton, Crisis in organizations: Managing and communicating in the heat of chaos, Cincinnati, OH: College Divisions South-Western, 1993.
[96] L. D. Brown, Managing conflict and organizational interfaces, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1982.
[97] L. Greenhalgh, “Managing Conglict,” Sloan Management Review, Summer 1986, pp. 45-51.
[98] L. R. Pondy, “Organizational conflict : Concepts and models,” Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 12, 1967, pp. 296-320.
[99] L. W. Stern and R. H. Gorman, Conflict in Distribution Channels: An Exploration, in Louis W. Stern, ed., Distribution Channels: Behavorial Dimensions, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1969, pp. 156-175.
[100] M. A. Ashworth, A study of the conflict management styles of principals and superintendents in the public schools of Ohio, Bowling Green State University, D.Ed. unpublished, 1989.
[101] M. A. Rahim, Managing Conflict in Organizations, 3rd ed., Quorum Books, Westport, Conn, 2001.
[102] M. C. Jensen and W. H. Meckling, “Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure,” Journal of Financial Economics, vol. 3, no.4, 1976, pp.305-360.
[103] M. Jensen and R. Ruback, “The Market for Corporate Control: The Scientific Evidence,” Journal of Financial Economics, vol.11, 1983, pp.5-50.
[104] M. L. Lemmon and K. V. Lin, “Ownership structure, corporate governance, and firm value: Evidence from the East Asian financial crisis,” Journal of Finance, vol.58, 2003, pp.1445-1468.
[105] M. M. Tombak, Mergers to monopoly, Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, vol. 11, no.3, 2002, pp.513-46.
[106] M. Nawas, Management van fusie en integratie: De vorming van ABN AMRO (in Dutch), Tilburg University Press, Tilburg, 1995.
[107] M. Nudell and N. Antokol, Crisis-free crisis management, Risk Management, vol. 36, no.4,1989, pp. 31-34.
[108] M. Riketta and R. van Dick, “Foci of attachment in organizations: A meta-analytic comparison of the strength and correlates of workgroup versus organizational identification and commitment,” Journal of Vocational Behavior, vol. 67, 2005, pp. 490-510.
[109] P. Haspeslagh and D. Jemison, Managing Acquisitions: Creating Value Through Corporate Renewal, The Free Press, New York, 1991.
[110] P. Pritchett, Making Mergers Work: A Guide to Managing Mergers and Acquisitions, Homewood, Dow-Jones-Irwin, 1987.
[111] P. S. Sudarsanam, The essence of mergers and acquisitions, Prentice Hall, 1995.
[112] P. Shrivasta and I. I. Mitroff, “Strategic management of corporate crises. Columbia,” Journal of World Business, vol. 22, no.3, 1987.
[113] P. Whitaker, Managing Change in School, Buckingham: Open University Press, 1993.
[114] Phillipe C. Haspeslagh and David B. Jenmison, “Acquisitions: Myths and Reality”, Sloan Management Review, vol. 28, no.2, 1987, pp.753-758.
[115] Qiang Kang and Qiao Liu, “Information-Based Stock Trading, Executive Incentives, and the Principal-Agent Problem,” Management Science, vol. 56, no. 4, April 2010, pp.682-698.
[116] R. G. Owens, Organizational behavior in education, N. J. :Prentice-Hall Inc., 1981.
[117] R. L. Barker, The social work dictionary, 4th ed., Washington, DC: NASW Press, 1999.
[118] R. L. Daft and R. M. Steers, Organizations: A micro/macro approach, NY: Collins Publishing, 1986.
[119] R. M. Steers and J. S. Black, Organizational Behavior, 5th ed., Harper Collins College Publishers, NY, 1994 .
[120] R. Sevenius, Foretagsforvarv- en introduction, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2003.
[121] Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes and Andrei Shleifer, “Corporate Ownership Around The World,” Journal of Finance, vol. 54, no. 2, 1999, pp. 477-480.
[122] S. A. Booth, Crisis management strategy: Competition and change in modern enterprises. London; New York: Routledge, 1993.
[123] S. Claessens, S. Djankov, J. P. H. Fan and L.H.P. Lang, “Expropriation of minority shareholders in East Asia,” Policy Research paper 2088, World Bank, Washington DC, 1999.
[124] S. P. Robbins, Organizational Behavior, Prentice Hall International, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1998, pp.434-445.
[125] S. R. Giessner, J. Ullrich and R. van Dick, “Teaching & Learning Guide for: Social Identity and Corporate Mergers,” Social and Personality Psychology Compass, vol. 5, 2011, pp. 500-504.
[126] Shaun Aghili, “Organizational Risk Management,” Back to Basics, 2010, pp. 21-23.
[127] Stephen Gates , Jean - Louis Nicolas and Paul L. Walker, “ Enterprise Risk Management: A Process for Enhanced Management and Improved Performance,” Management Accounting Quarterly, Vol. 13, no. 3, 2012, pp. 28-38.
[128] Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behavior, 9th ed., Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2001.
[129] Steven Fink, Crisis Management: Planning for Inevitable, American Management Association, 1 986.
[130] T. Carter, “Crisis management for sales force managers,” Journal of Professional Services Marketing, vol. 15, no.2, 1997, pp.87-103.
[131] T. L. Robbins and L. D. Fredenall, “Correlates of team success in higher education”, Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 141, 2001, pp.135-136.
[132] The Economist, How to Make Mergers Work, 9th , 1999, pp.13-14.
[133] W. H. Goldberg, Mergers: motives, modes, methods, Hampshire: Gower Publishing Company Limited, 1983.
[134] W. T. Coombs, Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding, CA: Sage, 1999.
論文全文使用權限:不同意授權