現在位置首頁 > 博碩士論文 > 詳目
  • 同意授權
論文中文名稱:鋼筋混凝土結構牆耐震行為研究 [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
論文英文名稱:Studies on the Seismic Behaviors of Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
院校名稱:臺北科技大學
學院名稱:工程學院
系所名稱:工程科技研究所
畢業學年度:99
出版年度:100
中文姓名:黃昭琳
英文姓名:Chao-Lin Huang
研究生學號:94679001
學位類別:博士
語文別:英文
口試日期:2011-01-07
論文頁數:136
指導教授中文名:林至聰;李有豐
指導教授英文名:Chi-Tsung Lin
口試委員中文名:張國鎮;黃世建;陳清泉;高健章;徐增興;邱耀正
中文關鍵詞:鋼筋混凝土結構牆力-位移關係曲線耐震行為
英文關鍵詞:RC structural wallForce-displacement relationshipsSeismic behavior
論文中文摘要:本論文以解析及數值分析探討鋼筋混凝土結構牆在側向載重下之耐震行為。在線彈性階段,滿足力學三大基本原則:力平衡、變位諧和、組成律及邊界條件等推導力-位移關係曲線。在塑性階段,以單自由度系統模擬鋼筋混凝土結構牆,以推導其非線性撓曲行為。此外,另以等值寬柱模擬結構牆並應用於靜力側推分析。藉由上述理論分析及側推分析力-位移關係曲線可預測結構牆試驗結果及初步耐震評估。
鋼筋混凝土結構牆雖有很多結構及經濟上之優點,但仍有一些缺點,其主要缺點為側向勁度太大,造成應力集中現象,因而導致結構牆易發生脆性斜向剪力裂縫及邊構材壓碎破壞,是以控制破壞為性能基準設計重要課題之一。為達此目的,結構物須能有效的消散地震能量並防止脆性剪力破壞。因此,為改善傳統剪力牆在反覆側向載重下之耐震行為,本論文以最大主拉應力及壓應力軌跡曲線之觀念,提出同心圓及螺旋狀二種新型牆體配筋方式,並在國家地震中心試驗。實驗結果顯示,本文所提改良式配筋相較於傳統剪力牆具有較佳韌性及消散地震能量。這意味較大的[X-型] 脆性剪力裂縫可以避免,而許多微小裂縫則逐漸的均勻分佈於牆體。此外,本改良式結構牆尚可有效控制裂縫發生及伸展,因所提改良式配筋形狀大致垂直於裂縫方向且與最大主拉應力方向大致相同,故能顯現較佳韌性破壞模式。
論文英文摘要:This thesis combines analytical and numerical approaches to the nonlinear behaviors of reinforced concrete (RC) structural walls under lateral loads, and this study utilizes a bilinear force-displacement relationship. In the elastic regions of RC walls; the equations of equilibrium, constitutive laws, compatibility equations, and boundary conditions are used. In plastic regions, the RC structural wall is modeled as a single degree of freedom (SDOF) spring-mass system to determine the seismic response of RC walls. In addition, an “equivalent wide column” model for RC walls is proposed and applied to perform nonlinear static pushover analysis. The lateral force-displacement relationships obtained by analytical studies and pushover analysis can accurately predict the experimental results in the elastic and inelastic regions. Furthermore, a simple analytical strategy for predicting the seismic behaviors of both single cantilever structural walls and coupled-wall systems is proposed. While the concept of equal displacement for RC structural wall systems subjected to uniform translation based on specified drift limits will be considered. The proposed method is simple, feasible, and applicable to both force-based and displacement-based seismic design approaches, which is a useful and practical tool for the seismic evaluation of existing RC structural wall buildings.
One of the basic requirements in performance-based design is to control the damage in the structural wall buildings when they are subjected to cyclic loading. To achieve this goal, the RC structure should be able to dissipate energy during seismic events, and prevent the brittle shear failure mode. Therefore, based on the concept of principal tensile and compressive stress trajectories, RC structural walls with extra concentric circles or spiral web reinforcements are presented, and tested under cyclic loading at the National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering. The test results showed that the proposed innovative RC structural walls had greater ductility and higher energy dissipation than those of traditional shear walls. This implies that “X-shaped” bi-diagonal shear cracks can be avoided. Instead, the numbers of minor cracks gradually and uniformly propagate into the wall surface. Moreover, the test results also indicated that the improved RC walls can effectively prevent inclined shear cracks from happening and growing in the walls. This is because the proposed new web reinforcement configurations are nearly perpendicular to the inclined shear cracks and close to the principal tensile stresses trajectories.
論文目次:TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT i
摘 要 iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES xi
LIST OF FIGURES xi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xvii
VITA xix
PUBLICATIONS xxi

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.2 Purposes of the Research 4
1.3 Literature Review 7
1.4 Summary 17

CHAPTER 2 LINEAR ELASTIC FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONSHIPS 21
2.1 Basic Equations for Plane Stress 21
2.1.1 Equations of Equilibrium 22
2.1.2 Compatibility Equations 23
2.1.3 Constitutive Laws 24
2.1.4 Airy Stress Function 25
2.2 Problem of the Vertical Cantilever Shear Wall 26
2.2.1 The Shear Wall Is Subjected to a Lateral Force P 26
2.2.2 The Shear Wall Is Subjected to a Uniform Distributed Force 31
2.3 Derivation of Load-Displacement Relationship in ACI Code 34
2.3.1 ACI Formulae 34
2.3.2 Comparison Between the Proposed Method and the ACI Code 36
2.3.3 Comparison of the Proposed Method with the Previous Tests 38
2.4 Summary of the Elastic Behavior 40
CHAPTER3 INELASTIC BILINEAR FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONSHIPS 43
3.1 SDOF Model for High-Rise Shear Wall 43
3.2 The Maximum and Yield Moments 46
3.2 Simple Truss Model for Low-Rise Shear Wall 47
3.4 Analytical Procedures 51
3.4.1 Bending Curvature and Curvature Ductility 51
3.4.2 Flexural Displacements 53
3.4.3 Shear Displacements 54
3.4.4 Plastic Displacement 54
3.4.5 Total Displacement and Displacement Ductility Demand 55
3.5 Comparison Between the Analytical and Experimental Results 59

CHAPTER 4 DISPLACEMENT-BASED SEISMIC DESIGN OF RC SINGLE WALL AND COUPLED-WALL SYSTEMS 61
4.1 Engineering Application: Seismic Responses of a RC Single Wall 64
4.1.1 Design base shear force 65
4.1.2 Fundamental vibration period 65
4.1.3 Design seismic response spectra 65
4.1.4 Analytical models 66
4.1.5 Elastic response spectrum analysis 68
4.1.6 Ultimate displacement 68
4.2 Analytical Verification 69
4.2.1 Yield displacement 69
4.2.2 Plastic displacement 69
4.2.3 Ultimate displacement 70
4.3 Seismic Responses of Coupled Walls Building in X-Direction 75
4.3.1 Elastic response 75
4.3.2 Relative yield displacements of coupled walls 77
4.3.3 Elastic-plastic responses 77
4.4 Nonlinear Static Pushover Analysis 79
4.4.1 Analytical model 80
4.4.2 Define plastic hinge properties 81
4.4.3 Comparison between the pushover analysis and experimental results 82

CHAPTER 5 CYCLIC BEHAVIOR OF TRADITIONAL AND INNOVATIVE RC SHEAR WALLS - EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 85
5.1 Fundamental Analysis 88
5.1.1 Shear flow in a framed shear wall 89
5.1.2 Shear stress in a framed shear wall 91
5.1.3 Rectangular cross section of framed shear wall 91
5.1.4 I-shape cross- section of a framed shear wall 92
5.2 Principal Stresses and Maximum Shear Stress in a Shear Wall 94
5.2.1 Basic theory 94
5.2.2 Derivation of principal stress trajectories in a shear wall 95
5.2.3 Failure modes of a framed shear wall 96
5.3 Test Program 98
5.3.1 Specimen details 99
5.3.2 Material properties 99
5.3.3 Repair and Rehabilitation Work 104
5.3.4 Test setup and instrumentation 104
5.4 Experimental Results 105
5.4.1 Cracking patterns and failure modes 107
5.4.2 Ultimate lateral force and displacement 110
5.4.3 Energy dissipation 111
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS 113
REFERENCES 117
LIST OF SYMBOLS 125
APPENDIX A EXAMPLE 1 129
APPENDIX B DETAILS OF THE TEST SETUP 133
論文參考文獻:REFERENCES
[1] ACI Committee 318, (2008). “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary,” (ACI), Michigan, USA.
[2] ATC-40, (1996). “Seismic evaluation and retrofit of concrete buildings,” California, Applied Technology Council.
[3] Barda, F., Hanson, J.M. and Corley, W.G., (1977). “Shear strength of low-rise walls with boundary elements,” ACI Structural Journal, pp.149-202.
[4] Benjamin, J.R. and Williams, H.A., (1957). “The behavior of one-story reinforced shear wall,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, pp. 1-49.
[5] Canbay, E., Ersoy, U. and Ozcebe, G., (2003). “Contribution of reinforced concrete infills to seismic behavior of structural systems,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 5, pp. 637-643.
[6] Cardenas, A.E., Hanson, J.M. and Corley, W.G. (1973). “Design provisions for shear walls,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 70, pp. 221-230.
[7] Chin M.T. (1986). “Stress-strain relationship of shear walls to lateral forces,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 1, pp.:31-17.
[8] Chiou, Y.J., Mo, Y.L., Hsiao, F.P., Liou, Y.W., and Sheu, M.S., (2003). “Experimental and analytical studies on large-scale reinforced concrete framed shear walls,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 211, pp. 201-222.
[9] Chopra, A.K., and Chintanapakdee, C., (2003). “Inelastic deformation ratios for design and evaluation of structures: SDOF bilinear systems,” Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
[10] Dym, C.L. and Shames, I.H. (1980). “Solid Mechanics- A Variational Approach,” McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
[11] Fintel, M. (1991). “Shear wall–an answer for seismic resistance, Concrete International, “ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 91, pp. 48-53.
[12] Fioalkow, M.N. (1990). “Behavior of reinforced concrete membranes with compatible stress and cracking,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 87, pp. 571-582.
[13] Ghobarah, A. and Youssef M. (1999). “Modeling of reinforced concrete structural walls,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 21, pp.912-923.
[14] Gulec, C.K., Whittaker, A.S. and Stojadinovic, B. (2008). “Shear strength of squat rectangular reinforced concrete walls,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 105, pp.488-497.
[15] Hibbeler, RC (1994). “Mechanics of Materials,” Macmillan College Publishing Company, New York.
[16] Huang, C.L., Li, Y. F., and Lin, C. T. (2010). “Analytical and pushover analysis for predicting nonlinear force- displacement relationships of slender R.C. walls,” Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, Vol. 34.
[17] Hwang, S.J., Fang, W.H., Lee, H.J. and Yu, H.W., (2001). “Analytical model for predicting shear strength of squat walls,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 127, No. 1, pp. 43-50.
[18] Hwang, S.J., Tu, Y.S. and Yu, H.W. (2005). “Prediction of load defection responses of low-rise shear walls”, Proceedings of the 7th Japan-Taiwan-Korea joint seminar on earthquake engineering for building structures, Seoul, Korea.
[19] Iliya, R., and Bertero, V.V. (1980). “Effect of amount and arrangement of wall-panel reinforcement on hysteretic behavior of reinforced concrete walls”, Report No. UCB/EERC-80/04, University of California, Berkeley.
[20] Lai, M. C. and Sung, Y. C. (2008). “A study on pushover analysis of frame structure infilled with low-rise reinforced concrete wall,” Journal of Mechanics, Vol. 24, pp. 437-449.
[21] Lefas, I.D., Kotsovos, M.D. and Ambraseys, N.N. (1990). “Behavior of reinforced concrete structural walls: strength, deformation characteristics, and failure mechanism,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 87, pp. 23-31.
[22] Lestuzzi, P. and Bachmann, H., (2007). “Displacement ductility and energy assessment from shaking table tests on RC structural walls,” Engineering Structures, Vol. 29, No. 8, pp. 1708-1721.
[23] Li, Y. F., Lin, Y. J., Chen, C. W., and Lin, C. T. (2007). “Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the As-built and Repaired Rehabilitated RC Frames,” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 923-933.
[24] Macgregor, J. and Wight, J.K. (2005). “Reinforced Concrete Mechanics and Design,” Fourth edition, Prentice-Hall, Singapore.
[25] Mansour, M., Lee, J.Y. and Hsu, T.T.C. (2001). “Constitutive laws of concrete and steel bars in membrane elements under cyclic loading”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 127, No.12, pp. 1402-1411.
[26] Massone, L.M. and Wallace, J.W., (2004). “Load-deformation responses of slender reinforced concrete walls,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 101, No. 1, pp. 103-113.
[27] Mo, Y.L., Liao, W.I., Zhong, J. and Loh, C.H., (2005). “Studies of high seismic performance shear walls-test and simulation,” Proceedings of the 7th Japan-Taiwan-Korea joint seminar on earthquake engineering for building structures, Seoul, Korea.
[28] Mo, Y.L. (1988). “Analysis and design of low-rise structural walls under dynamically applied shear forces,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 85, pp.180-189.
[29] Orakcal, K., Wallace, J.W. and Conte, J.P., (2004). “Flexural modeling of reinforced concrete walls-model attributes,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 101, No. 5, pp. 688-698.
[30] Palermo D, Vecchio F.J. (2002). Behavior of three-dimensional reinforced concrete shear walls. ACI Structural Journal; 99:89-81.
[31] Paulay, T. and Priestley, M.J.N. (1982). “Ductility in earthquake resisting squat shear walls”, Structural Journal, ACI, Vol. 79, pp. 257-269.
[32] Paulay, T., (1999), “A simple seismic design strategy based on displacement and ductility compatibility,” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology, Vol. 1, No 1, pp. 51-67.
[33] PCI (1985). “Precast and Prestressed Concrete Design Handbook,” third edition, Chicago, Illinois.
[34] Priestley, M.J.N., (1997). “Displacement-based seismic assessment of reinforced concrete buildings,” Journal of earthquake Engineering, Vol. 1, No.1, pp. 157-192.
[35] Penelis, G.G. and Kappos, A.J. (1997). “Earthquake-resistant concrete structures,” Spon, London.
[36] Panagiotakos, T.B. and Fardis, M.N. (2001). “Deformations of reinforced concrete members at yielding and ultimate,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 98, pp. 135-148.
[37] Reddy, J.N. (2006). “An Introduction to the Finite Element Method,” McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York
[38] Salonikios, T.N., Kappos, A.J., Tegos, I.A. and Penelis G.G. (1999). “Cyclic load behavior of low-slenderness reinforced concrete walls”, Structural Journal, ACI, Vol. 96, pp. 649-660.
[39] Salonikios, T.N. (2007). “Analytical prediction of the inelastic response of RC walls with low aspect ratio,” ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 133, pp. 844-854.
[40] Shaingchin, S., Lukkunaprasit, P. and Wood, S.L. (2007). “Influence of diagonal web reinforcement on cyclic behavior of structural walls”, Engineering Structures, Vol. 29, pp. 498-510.
[41] Siao, W.B. (1994). “Shear strength of short reinforced concrete walls, corbels, and deep beams,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 91, pp. 132-123.
[42] Sittipunt, C., Wood, S.L., Lukkunaprasit, P. and Pattararattanakul, P. (2001). “Cyclic behavior of reinforced structural walls with diagonal web reinforcement”, Structural Journal, ACI, Vol. 98, No. 4, pp. 554-562.
[43] Sung, Y.C., Su, C.K., Wu, C.W. and Tsai, I.C. (2006). “Performance-based damage assessment of low-rise reinforced concrete buildings,” Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, Vol. 29, No.1, p.p. 51-62.
[44] Taghdi, M., Bruneau, M. and Saatcioglu, M. (2000). “Analysis and design of low-rise masonry and concrete walls retrofitted using steel strips,” ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 126, pp. 1026-1032.
[45] Tasnimi, A.A. (2000). “Strength and deformation of mid-rise shear walls under load reversal”, Engineering Structures, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 99-107.
[46] Taylor, C.P., Cote P.A., Wallace, J.W. (1998). “Design of slender reinforced concrete walls with openings,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 95, pp.433-420.
[47] Thomas, N. Salonikios (2007). “Analytical prediction of the inelastic response of RC walls with low aspect ratio,” ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 133, pp. 844-853.
[48] Timoshenko, S. and Young, D.H. (1968). “Elementary of Strength of Materials,” D. Van Nostrand Company, Princeton, New Jersy.
[49] Timoshenko, S. and Goodier, J.N. (1951). “Theory of Elasticity,” McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
[50] Wallace, J.W. and Moehle, J.P., (1992). “Ductility and detailing requirements of bearing wall buildings,” Journal of Structural Engineering,” ASCE, Vol. 118, No. 6, pp. 1625-1644.
[51] Wallace, J.W., (1998). “A designer’s guide to displacement-based design of RC structural walls,” University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
[52] Wilson, E.L. (2000). “Three Dimensional Static and Dynamics Analysis of Structures,” CSI Computers and Structures, Inc, Berkeley, California.
[53] Wood, S., (1989). “Minimum tensile reinforcement requirements in walls,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 86, No. 5, pp. 582-591.
[54] Wood, S., (1990). “Shear strength of low-rise reinforced concrete walls,” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 87, No. 1, pp. 99-107.
[55] Yeh, Y.K., Chung, L.L., Chien, W.Y., Chai, J.F., Hsiao, F.P., Shen, W.C., Yang, Y.S., Chiou, T.C., Chow, T.K., Chao, Y.F., and Hwang, S.J., (2009). “Technology handbook for seismic evaluation and retrofit of school buildings,” NCREE 08-023, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
[56] Zhao, Q. and Astaneh-Asl, A. (2004). “Cyclic behavior of traditional and innovative composite shear walls”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 130, pp. 271-283.
[57] Shu, S.W. (2008). “Analytical and experimental studies on the low rise RC shear walls” M.S. thesis, graduate school of civil and disaster prevention, NTUT, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
論文全文使用權限:同意授權於2011-02-09起公開