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論文中文名稱:橋樑防落拉桿之實驗與力學分析 [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
論文英文名稱:The Experiment and Analysis of Restrainers for Bridges [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
院校名稱:臺北科技大學
學院名稱:工程學院
系所名稱:土木與防災研究所
中文姓名:徐瑞億
英文姓名:Jui-Yi Hsu
研究生學號:92428018
學位類別:碩士
語文別:中文
口試日期:2005-07-15
論文頁數:94
指導教授中文名:李有豐
指導教授英文名:Yeou-Fong Li
口試委員中文名:陳清泉;刁健原
中文關鍵詞:橋梁落橋防落拉桿
英文關鍵詞:BridgeBridge fallingRestrainer
論文中文摘要:落橋是影響程度相當嚴重的橋梁震災,加設防落裝置可以有效降低落橋發生的機率,也是防止落橋最經濟與最有效之方法。國內防落裝置之使用量於近年已有大幅的提昇,但卻無較完整的設計訪法與規範。我國目前常使用的防落裝置種類不多,大致上有止震塊、防落拉桿、剪力榫、剪力鋼箱及支承抗拉拔裝置等,又防震拉桿有鋼索和鋼棒二種形式,鋼索多用於鋼橋防落,而鋼棒則應用在RC橋梁,本研究針對鋼棒型式之防落拉桿進行探討。
日本已有完善之落橋防制系統流程,而美國防落裝置大致上僅有防震拉桿和鋼索兩種型式,美國在橋梁設計的理念偏向於設計足夠的防落長度,即不需防落裝置。相較之下,我國和美國的防落裝置都不如日本嚴謹,因此新設計的橋梁多無防落裝置,而防落裝置則多用於舊橋補強。日本與我國的橋型相似,但是我國許多設計卻採用美國AASHTO的設計,所以本計畫將融合美國和日本的設計經驗,進而發展適合我國的設計規範。
本研究計劃首先蒐集、彙整國內外防落拉桿與裝置等資料,配合橋梁功能性支承系統耐震性能設計與補強方法之研究,著手進行相關實驗,並採用ANSYS分析軟體進行分析探討,以實驗成果與理論分析相互驗證之結果,進而提出一簡易的防落拉桿設計方法與結合其他設施之整座橋梁分析方法,確保防震拉桿可以發揮功效,使橋梁上部結構在大地震時不發生落橋的行為與震後可快速修復等功能,提供國內顧問公司與施工廠商作為遵循之依據。
論文英文摘要:There have been many examples of bridge failure caused by relative movement of spans in the longitudinal or the transverse directions exceeding the seating widths, and resulting in unseating at unrestrained movement joints in Northridge Earthquake (1994, U.S.A.), Kobi Earthquake (1995, Japan) and Ji Ji Earthquake (1999, Taiwan). This has been a particular problem for simply supported span bridges with tall columns. Restrainers may be placed across the joint in an attempt to reduce the relative displacements, or the displacement capacity of the movement joint can be increased. Restrainers are used to restrain displacement between the expansion joint, restrainers may be placed in order that longitudinal seismic force can be transferred between adjacent frames. The analysis and design for the interaction of inelastic frames connected by restrainers are complex and cannot be achieved by simple elastic analyses. Results from dynamic inelastic analysis incorporating relatively sophisticated modeling of the movement joints indicate that maximum longitudinal displacements can be estimated. Determination of the appropriate strength for the restrainers and reduction in displacement caused by stiff restrainers are difficult unless dynamic inelastic analyses are carried out. In many bridges the appropriate treatment for movement joints will be to use restrainers to lock the movement joints so that essentially no relative movement can occur.
In Japan, the design of restrainers and other earthquake resistance devices have been very well developed. In the States, the restrainers are mostly used in the existing bridges which are seismic deficiency. In Taiwan, the seismic design code of bridge follows the AASHTO bridge desingn code, and some of the earthquake devices and restrainers are supported by Japan. Therefore, we wuld like to developed the design and analysis methodology or guideline of the restrainers for the usage in Taiwan. The ANSYS finite-element softwares will be used in this project to simulate the force in the restrainer under earthquakes.
論文目次:中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iv
目錄 v
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機 1
1.3 研究目的與內容 3
1.4 文獻回顧 3
1.4.1 美日台灣防落拉桿之發展 3
1.4.2 防落拉桿相關研究文獻 10
第二章 防落拉桿裝置實驗規劃 12
2.1 實驗試體設計 12
2.2 基本材料性質 15
2.2.1 防落拉桿鋼棒 15
2.2.2 橡膠墊片 16
2.2.3 混凝土 17
2.4 試體製作過程 24
2.5 實驗裝置 30
2.5.1 試體固定 30
2.5.2 量測儀器 33
2.5.3 實驗方式 33
第三章 實驗觀察與實驗結果 36
3.1 單向加載實驗觀察與結果 36
3.2 安裝Φ32 mm鋼棒之單向往覆加載實驗觀察 42
3.3 安裝Φ38 mm鋼棒之單向往覆加載實驗觀察 52
3.4 實驗結果比較與討論 59
第四章 ANSYS軟體分析 63
4.1 有限元素法分析 63
4.2 實驗試體之有限元素模型建構說明 64
4.3 實驗試體之有限元素分析 71
4.3.1 橡膠墊片之分析 74
4.3.2 端隔梁試體與防落拉桿鋼棒之分析 80
第五章 結論與建議 89
5.1 結論 89
5.2 建議 90
參考文獻 91
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論文全文使用權限:同意授權於2005-08-24起公開