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論文中文名稱:河川沖刷對河溪生態工法安全之評析 [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
論文英文名稱:Safety Analyzing of River Bed Scouring in Stream Ecological Engineering Methods [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
院校名稱:臺北科技大學
學院名稱:工程學院
系所名稱:土木與防災研究所
中文姓名:李世強
英文姓名:Shih-Chiang Lee
研究生學號:94428040
學位類別:碩士
語文別:中文
口試日期:2007-07-22
論文頁數:91
指導教授中文名:林鎮洋
口試委員中文名:梁文盛;林鐵雄;陳彥璋
中文關鍵詞:河溪生態工法沖刷經驗公式
英文關鍵詞:Stream Ecological Engineering MethodsScouring Experiance Formula
論文中文摘要:  一般大眾對『生態工法』或『生態工程』已不陌生,政府相關單位也大幅應用此法進行各項工程,但其需求、成因與省思或學理基礎並未相對受到重視,造成只重「應用」不重「科學」的盲點。從天然環境來看,台灣地質構造脆弱、水文變化差異極大,為穩定河川狀況、減少洪水或河川流路改變,以減輕人民生命財產的損失,於河川設置大量結構物穩定河岸、河床或築堤束水以箝制河川變化、設置水庫應付水資源日增之需求等人為工程,改變了河川自然的動態平衡;然而本土河溪生態工法構造物施設,鮮少考慮此一改變之平衡,導致結構物基礎埋置深度可能不足,使構造物長期的安全與穩定產生隱憂。
  彙整過去關於生態工法安全之研究,從「河溪生態工法參考手冊」提出安全之原則,繼之「生態工法分析模式與設計要點研究」對於五種河床沖刷機制建議不同公式,而「河溪生態工法安全評估之研究」對於安全提出定性評估因子,再由「國外經驗公式評估國內生態工法護岸安全之研究」對安全因子與沖刷公式以實際案例進行試用;呈前人之研究,深入探討常見河溪環境的沖刷問題,並檢討「生態工法分析模式與設計要點研究」所建議之沖刷公式是否合理適用。本文將常見沖刷之類型分為:一般、彎曲、束縮及落差四種,由計算結果得知各經驗公式實際使用時仍需要進一步修正,後續若需要更準確的對於台灣河川沖刷狀況進行推估,則需以台灣河川特性為背景,利用實測或實驗獲得更精確之計算公式。
論文英文摘要:Most people in Taiwan are aware of “Ecological Engineering Method” (or “Ecological Engineering”), and most of public works have been constructed using ecological engineering method. However, attentions have not yet been paied on the fundamental theory, resaulting in the negligence of scientificfoundation. The geological structure of Taiwan is weak and hydology is changful. In order to protect life and properties of civilian from disaster, structures have been placed in the river to stablize river and to provide water resources. River morphology has been changed due to various human activies. The negligence of considering dynamic equalibrium of river has already caused instability of hydraulic structures, in most cases, the fundation depth of structure is insufficient.
According to the research results of safety of ecological engineering in the past, the “Study on Localized Aquatic Eco-technological Methods in Taiwan III” provided the design priciples, “The Development of Model and Design Guideline for Ecological Engineering Methods” has suggesed five different bed scouring formula. Furthermore the “Safety Evaluation of Stream Ecological Engineering Mehtods” generated the qualitative safety evaluation factor, and the “Evaluating the Safety Measure of Local Eco-Technology-Based Bulkhead by Foreign Empirical Equation” has tested the suitability of both safety factor and empirical equation in many real cases. This article has discussed common scouring problems in depth, reviewed the scouring formula suggested from “The Development of Model and Design Guideline for Ecological Engineering Methods” for their rationality and applicability. The author assort common type of scour including: general, bend, constraction and drop. This article compared each empirical equation and suggested that those empirical eauqtions can only be used as refercence. The author suggested that further research using local data in needed to obtain local empirical equations. Howerer, scouring equations suggested in this article can be adopted for estimeting scouring depthes in a satisfactory manner.
論文目次:v
目錄
摘 要................................................................................................................................ i
英文摘要............................................................................................................................ ii
誌謝.................................................................................................................................. iv
目錄....................................................................................................................................v
圖目錄.............................................................................................................................. vii
表目錄............................................................................................................................. viii
第一章 緒論.....................................................................................................................1
1.1 研究動機..............................................................................................................1
1.2 研究目的..............................................................................................................2
1.3 研究方法..............................................................................................................2
1.4 研究範圍、假設與限制......................................................................................2
第二章 文獻回顧.............................................................................................................4
2.1 河溪生態工法與台灣河溪治理之回顧..............................................................4
2.1.1 生態工法....................................................................................................5
2.1.2 台灣河溪治理............................................................................................9
2.2 河溪生態工法參考手冊....................................................................................11
2.2.1 河溪環境調查與工法檢核......................................................................13
2.2.2 河溪生態工法技術應用原則..................................................................15
2.3 生態工法分析模式與設計要點研究................................................................16
2.3.1 生態工法設計參考手冊評估與建議......................................................17
2.3.2 河岸保護工、丁壩工及固床工破壞原因探討......................................17
2.3.3 生態工法設計要點..................................................................................18
2.3.4 河川生態工法設計流程..........................................................................19
2.3.5 建議公式..................................................................................................24
2.4 河溪生態工法安全評估之研究........................................................................28
2.4.1 河溪生態工法安全評估方式之建立......................................................29
2.4.2 河溪生態工法案例分析..........................................................................33
2.4.3 評估資料統計分析..................................................................................33
2.4.4 生態工法安全評估之結論與建議..........................................................34
2.5 國外經驗公式評估國內生態工法護岸安全之研究........................................34
2.5.1 河溪生態工法(結構安全)評估之建立....................................................35
2.5.2 安全評估案例分析..................................................................................37
2.5.3 評估資料統計分析..................................................................................37
2.5.4 生態工法護岸安全之結論與建議..........................................................38
第三章 河溪常見型態及其破壞型式...........................................................................39
3.1 台灣河溪與常見型態........................................................................................40
3.2 常見破壞型式....................................................................................................44
3.2.1 一般沖刷..................................................................................................44
3.2.2 彎道沖刷..................................................................................................44
vi
3.2.3 束縮沖刷..................................................................................................45
3.2.4 落差沖刷..................................................................................................45
3.3 河溪常見型態沖刷破壞條件之歸納................................................................45
第四章 國內外沖刷經驗公式介紹...............................................................................47
4.1 一般沖刷經驗公式............................................................................................47
4.2 彎道沖刷經驗公式............................................................................................50
4.3 束縮沖刷經驗公式............................................................................................59
4.4 落差沖刷經驗公式............................................................................................63
第五章 沖刷經驗公式之計算與分析...........................................................................68
5.1 一般沖刷............................................................................................................68
5.2 彎道沖刷............................................................................................................70
5.3 束縮沖刷............................................................................................................72
5.4 落差沖刷............................................................................................................75
第六章 結論與建議.......................................................................................................77
6.1 結論....................................................................................................................77
6.2 缺點與限制........................................................................................................77
6.3 建議....................................................................................................................78
參考文獻...........................................................................................................................79
符號彙編...........................................................................................................................84
公式彙編...........................................................................................................................87
v ii
圖目錄
圖1.1 生態工法金字塔................................................................................................ 1
圖1.2 研究流程圖........................................................................................................ 3
圖2.1 各類生態技術發展進程與整合........................................................................ 5
圖2.2 河溪治理沿革.................................................................................................. 10
圖2.3 河溪生態工法基本理念.................................................................................. 13
圖2.4 先期規劃作業流程圖...................................................................................... 20
圖2.5 河川生態工法流程圖...................................................................................... 21
圖2.6 生態工法佈置選用流程圖.............................................................................. 22
圖2.7 安全性流程圖.................................................................................................. 23
圖2.8 工法檢核流程圖.............................................................................................. 24
圖2.9 彎道沖刷示意圖.............................................................................................. 25
圖2.10 束縮沖刷示意圖.............................................................................................. 26
圖2.11 落差沖刷示意圖............................................................................................... 26
圖2.12 不透水丁壩示意圖.......................................................................................... 27
圖2.13 透水丁壩示意圖.............................................................................................. 28
圖2.14 河溪生態工法安全因子關係圖...................................................................... 29
圖2.15 河溪生態工法安全評估項目圖...................................................................... 31
圖2.16 河溪生態工法結構安全評估項目圖(本研究重繪)........................................ 35
圖3.1 常見河溪環境分區示意圖.............................................................................. 39
圖3.2 河溪常見沖刷型態.......................................................................................... 44
圖4.1 Chatley 總偏向角示意圖................................................................................ 51
圖4.2 Apmann 彎道示意圖....................................................................................... 53
圖4.3 Galay et al. 彎道示意圖.................................................................................. 56
圖5.1 一般沖刷圖...................................................................................................... 69
圖5.2 彎道沖刷總圖.................................................................................................. 71
圖5.3 束縮沖刷圖(Fr=0.26) ....................................................................................... 72
圖5.4 束縮沖刷圖(Fr=0.36) ....................................................................................... 73
圖5.6 束縮沖刷圖(Fr=0.56) ....................................................................................... 74
圖5.7 束縮沖刷圖(Fr=0.66) ....................................................................................... 74
圖5.8 落差沖刷圖 q=5 (cms/m)圖............................................................................ 75
圖5.9 落差沖刷圖 q=10 (cms/m)圖.......................................................................... 76
圖5.10 落差沖刷圖 q=20 (cms/m)圖.......................................................................... 76
v iii
表目錄
表2.1 國外生態工法發展沿革.................................................................................... 7
表2.2 國內生態工法之定義........................................................................................ 8
表2.3 各階端作業流程生態考量重點...................................................................... 15
表2.4 河溪生態工法各作業階段重點檢核表.......................................................... 15
表2.5 生態工法於河溪整治應用目的與功能.......................................................... 16
表2.6 河溪生態工法安全評估表.............................................................................. 32
表2.7 評估大項統計資料表...................................................................................... 33
表2.8 評估細項統計資料表...................................................................................... 34
表2.9 生態工法應用於河溪結構安全之評估評估表.............................................. 36
表2.10 生態工法應用於河溪結構安全之評估統計分析表(本研究繪製)................ 37
表3.1 河床質粒徑分佈.............................................................................................. 42
表3.2 台灣各地河床質粒徑特性表(本研究重整).................................................... 42
表3.3 河溪生態工法檢核重點摘錄.......................................................................... 43
表4.1 自然河川形態與c 值係數表........................................................................... 47
表4.2 ε 控制因子與W/Rc 寬徑比.............................................................................. 54
表4.3 Maynord 安全係數表....................................................................................... 59
表4.4 Laursen 束縮係數對照表................................................................................. 60
表4.5 一般沖刷公式參數列表.................................................................................. 66
表4.6 彎道沖刷公式參數列表.................................................................................. 67
表4.7 束縮沖刷公式參數列表.................................................................................. 67
表4.8 落差(潛壩)沖刷公式參數列表........................................................................ 67
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