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論文中文名稱:中文與英文母語者拒絕行為之跨語言研究 [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
論文英文名稱:A Cross-Linguistic Study of Chinese and English Native Speakers’ Comprehension and Production of Politeness Speech Act in Refusal Strategy [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
院校名稱:臺北科技大學
學院名稱:人文與社會科學學院
系所名稱:應用英文系碩士班
畢業學年度:104
畢業學期:第二學期
出版年度:105
中文姓名:陳韋豪
英文姓名:Alexander Chen
研究生學號:101548007
學位類別:碩士
語文別:英文
口試日期:2016/07/28
指導教授中文名:洪媽益
指導教授英文名:Michael Tanangkingsing
口試委員中文名:謝富惠;邱盛秀
中文關鍵詞:拒絕,禮貌,言談行為,文化差異,跨文化溝通
英文關鍵詞:refusal, politeness, speech act, cultural difference, cross-cultural communication
論文中文摘要:摘要

論文名稱: 中文與英文母語者拒絕行為之跨語言研究
頁數: 九十五頁
校所別: 國立臺北科技大學 應用英文系 研究所
畢業時間: 一百零四學年度 第二學期
學位: 碩士
研究生: 陳韋豪
指導教授: 洪媽益 博士

關鍵字:拒絕,禮貌,言談行為,文化差異,跨文化溝通

成功的溝通主要是透過自身的語言能力及社會語言之行為所共同組成,並與禮貌性行為息息相關。本研究即探討中文為母語的台灣大學生與英語為母語的大學生在漢英拒絕跨語言的理解 (Comprehension) 和語言行為表現 (Production) 上做比較以及跨語言拒絕行為其背後所可能形成之原因。跨語言研究中已有從不同文化與語言來探討『拒絕』(Refusals) 的語言行為研究,但卻鮮少有研究探討學習英文為外語的台灣學生 (Chinese EFL learners in Taiwan) 漢語拒絕語中的表現。研究語料來自:即以中文為母語的台灣大學生和以英文為母語的外籍大學生之間的差異。本研究針對60位大學生 (30位為英語母語中文學習者,30位為中文母語英語學習者) 以言談情境填充問卷 (Discourse Completion Test) 方式收集語料,藉以收集受試者情境變數(contextual factors):社會地位(social status),社會距離(social distance)的語言理解及行為表現語料。依據Beebe et al (1990) 的分析原則,將受試者使用之拒絕策略分為直接拒絕 (Direct Refusals),間接拒絕 (Indirect Refusals) 和拒絕附加語 (Adjuncts to refusals)。研究結果顯示,兩組母語受試者均呈現相同的趨勢。例如,在言談情境填充問卷的分析結果顯示,兩組母語受試者所使用的主要拒絕策略大致相同,差異主要在次策略的分布以及其語意特徵(如: excuse/reason)。以情境變數而言,『交談者社會地位』對台灣學生的理解與表現行為有較顯著的影響。在產出 (Production) 表現方面,雖然台灣和北美學生皆偏好使用間接拒絕勝於直接拒絕,且兩組受試者皆傾向採用相同的拒絕策略 (Refusal Strategies),但各組在策略的使用頻率以及策略的實際表現則有所差異。整體而言,台灣大學生使用較多的拒絕型策略。因此,為了在不同文化中能有適當的語言行為表現,建議未來的跨語言拒絕行為研究應同時強調理解 (Comprehension) 和產出 (Production)行為表現的探討,以提供社會價值和其他動機因素之跨文化差異性,幫助詮釋英語學習者對於語言行為的體悟,並對『拒絕』行為有更佳的理解。由於本研究僅著重在拒絕者的單向反應,建議將來進一步分析情境扮演語料,與受試者訪談另收集自然語料等以對拒絕行為有較全面性的了解。
論文英文摘要:ABSTRACT

Title: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Chinese and English Native Speakers’ comprehension and Production of Politeness Speech Act in Refusal Strategy
Pages: 95
School: National Taipei University of Technology
Department: Applied English
Time: August, 2016
Degree: Master
Research: Alexander Chen
Advisor: Michael Tanangkingsing

Key words: refusal, politeness, speech act, cultural difference, cross-cultural communication

Successful communication is the joint product of linguistics as well the sociolinguistic competence denoting appropriateness, which is closely associated with politeness. This study attempted to investigate Chinese and English Native-speakers’ comprehension and production of politeness in refusal by exploring the frequency, shift and content of semantic formulas on realization of the strategies. A multiple-choice Discourse Completion Test (DCT) was deployed to generate participants’ data, which consisted of 8 scenarios and two contextual variable factors, comprising social distance, and social status. Selection of situations in Discourse Completion Test (DCT) was based on Brown and Levinson’s (B&L) politeness theory as a face-threat mitigating strategy, who established politeness as socially determined by rank of imposition, relative power, and social distance. Data used for analysis cover 30 Chinese NSs, and 30 English NSs elicited from Discourse-Completion-Task (DCT) questionnaire. All data were coded and analyzed by Beebe et al.’s coding system (1990), which examine the refusal strategies as direct refusals, indirect refusals, and adjuncts to refusals. The findings indicate that there are more similarities than differences in the frequency, shift and content of semantic formulas used by the Chinese and English NS in making refusals when responding to different DCT situations. Both groups preferred to use indirect refusal strategies rather than direct ones and preferred the strategies of reason, statement of alternative and regret. However, the English NS groups utilized a great proportion of direct strategies than did the Chinese subjects on average. The differences can be attributed to cultural difference between Chinese and English NS culture. For instance, while both groups used providing excuse/reason for the refusal, the English NSs’ excuses were more specific, concrete and to the point in both place and time. On other hand, Chinese NS displayed a nearly high level of frequency shift in their use of several semantic formulas, whereas English NSs’ patterns for refusals were quite consistent regardless of status level. The limitation of the study suggests future study conduct on natural utterances, oral DCT, Face-to-face semi-structured interview with the participants and further discussion on role-play data to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the behavior of refusal realized by Chinese and English NS participants.
論文目次:TA TABLE OF CONTENTS

中文摘要 …………………………………………………………………………….iii
ABSTRACT ....………………………………………………………………………v
ACKOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………………………………….vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………………….viii
LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………………..xi
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION …..…………………………..…………….....1
1.1 Background and Motivations ……….......……………...………………1
1.2 Purpose of the Study .………….……………..……………………........4
1.3 Significance of the Study …………...……………..………………........5
1.4 Organization of the Thesis …………...…………..…………………….6

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………………………7
2.1 Speech Act Theory ………...……………………..…………………….7
2.2 Linguistic Politeness as the Underpinning Theory …………….…….8
2.2.1 Brown and Levinson’s Politeness Theory …….....………….10
2.2.2 Face and Face Threatening Acts ….....……………………..11
2.3 Collectivism vs. Individualism ……......……………………...…….14
2.4 Politeness and Contextual Factors …………....……………………16
2.4.1 Social Distance …………..………………………………….16
2.4.2 Social Status .………………………………………………..17
2.5 Speech Act of Refusals ……………..……………………………….17

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY …………………………………………23
3.1 Participants ………………………………………………………….24
3.2 Instruments …..……………………………………………………...25
3.2.1 Demographic Questionnaire ………….…………………....25
3.2.2 Multi-item Scales ..………...………………………………..25
3.2.3 Discourse Completion Test (DCT) ………...……...……….26
3.2.3.1 Limitations of DCTs ……...…………………..28
3.2.3.2 Discussions of DCTs …..……………………...29
3.3 Questionnaire Design …...…………………………………………..30
3.4 Procedures ....……………………………………………………........31
3.5 Data Coding .….……………………………………………………..33
3.6 Data Analysis …………………………………………………………34

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ….…………………….36
4.1 Overall Tendency …...……………………………………………37
4.2 Frequency of Strategies Used ……………………………………38
4.3 Distribution of Refusal Strategies in Response to the Initiating Act in Percentage ……...……………………...41
4.3.1 Refusal to Requests ….………………………………….41
4.3.2 Refusal to Invitations ……..……….………………………46
4.3.3 Refusal to Offers …...…………………………………...50
4.3.4 Refusal to Suggestion ………..……………………………53

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION ………………………………………………...60
5.1 Findings …...………………………………………………………60
5.2 Pedagogical Implication ………………………………………….64
5.3 Recommendations for Future Studies ………………………….65

REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………..66

APPENDIX A: Demographic Questionnaire (English) ………………..………...80
APPENDIX B: Demographic Questionnaire (Chinese) ………………..………...81
APPENDIX C: Multi-item Questionnaire (English) ……………...……………...82
APPENDIX D: Multi-item Questionnaire (Chinese) ………….....………………85
APPENDIX E: Discourse Completion Questionnaire (English) ...………………88
APPENDIX F: Discourse Completion Questionnaire (Chinese) …………...…...90
APPENDIX G: Recruitments Notice for Chinese and English NSs ……….........92
APPENDIX H: The Taxonomy of Beebe at al. …………………………………..94
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