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論文中文名稱:台灣大學生的英語關係子句使用之表現 [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
論文英文名稱:A Study on the Competence of Relative Clauses of Taiwanese Undergraduate Students [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
英文姓名:Yi-Ting Su
指導教授英文名:Michael Tanangkingsing
口試委員英文名:Fu-Hui Hsieh;Dong-Yi Lin;Caroline Hwang
英文關鍵詞:relative clausesuniversal constraintsshort-term memoryavoidance strategies
論文中文摘要:關係子句一直是語言學習者需要花大量的時間和心力去研習的,也是語言學者長期在研究其複雜結構的原因。同時,關係子句也常運用在口語溝通或是文章陳述,是一個應用範圍相當廣泛的句構。本研究以三個假設為參考,分別是名詞短語可及性層級假設(Noun Phrase Accessibility Hypothesis, NPAH)、感知難度假設 (Perceptual Difficulty Hypothesis, PDH)與SO層級假設 (SO Hierarchy Hypothesis, SOHH)來了解學習者在英語關係子句習得上會受到哪些因素的限制。根據現有文獻顯示,其中因素可能包含語言普遍性限度和人類的短期記憶限制。此外本研究也針對學習者在構成英語關係子句時會採用哪些迴避策略進行分析。本研究的對象為英文本科系的大學生,並以合併句子及文法是非判斷此兩種測驗方式進行。合併句子是用來了解學習者在構成關係子句時最常用的結構為何及迴避策略的使用,並結合10種最常使用的英語關係子句類型:SS, SO, SIO, SOPREP, SGEN, OS, OO,OIO, OOPREP以及OGEN。此研究結果顯示英文本科系大學生普遍GEN類型題目答對率高,DO相對低。在合併句子中,如果句子為OPREP類型時,受試者普遍會迴避,並使用較熟悉的句法;其中也發現重複代名詞較常出現在DO類型的關係子句。整體的作答中,有部分的受試者會刻意迴避鑲嵌式句型,並使用右延伸句型代替。由分析中也發現,過度的訓練困難結構的句子會使學習者在遇到簡單句子時缺乏思考,如果出現看似簡單句型的陷阱題時,也容易判斷錯誤。
論文英文摘要:The present study investigated learners’ acquisition constraints in terms of acquiring English relative clauses. The three predictor hypotheses with distinct theoretical backgrounds are employed as reference materials in the research: Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH), Perceptual Difficulty Hypothesis (PDH), and Subject-Object Hierarchy Hypothesis (SOHH). The research was conducted by testing the production of relative clauses among Taiwanese English major undergraduate students with grammaticality judgment task and sentence combination task. The grammaticality judgment task was designed to obtain intuitional data based on learners’ reaction to the task sentences. The sentence combination task contained 10 sentences that was combined with subject and object and generated 10 types of relative clauses to examine the tendency of learners’ production of relative clauses. The results of the study are as follows: First, GEN is the easiest type to understand and DO is the most difficult type for Taiwanese English major undergraduate students. Second, for Taiwanese English major undergraduate students, while center-embedded RCs are not a barrier for them to acquire and/or produce, right-embedded RCs are easier for them to produce and/or access. Third, some subjects tended to switch the order of the two sentences in the examinations when DO, IO and OPREP type of RCs occurs. Fourth, Taiwanese learners of English are influenced by Chinese producing English RCs with resumptive pronouns. In addition, the analysis of the two tasks revealed that over training for using difficult structures may cause learners to answer the questions of simple structures too quickly without thinking too much into it. In other words, if the questions were manipulated by the author and looked like a simple sentence, learners may answer them quickly and choose an incorrect answer.
論文目次:Acknowledgements i
Chinese Abstract iii
Abstract v
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables x
List of Figures xii
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 General Introduction of Relative Clauses 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Significance of the Study 5
2.1 Introduction to English Relative Clauses 7
2.1.1 Definitions 7
2.1.2 English Relative Clause Types 9
2.1.3 Relative Clause in English Conversation 11
2.1.4 Relative Clause in Written English 14
2.2 Contrasts between English and Chinese Relative Clauses 14
2.2.1 Prenominal vs Postnominal Relative Clauses 15
2.2.2 Comparative Study of Relative Markers 16
2.2.3 Differences in terms of Relativized Positions 18
2.2.4 Summary of Similarities and Differences between English and Chinese Relative Clauses 19
2.3 Hypotheses for English Relativization Difficulty 20
2.3.1 Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy Hypothesis (NPAH) 21
2.3.2 Perceptual Difficulty Hypothesis (PDH) 25
2.3.3 Subject-Object Hierarchy Hypothesis (SOHH) 26
2.3.4 Parallel Function Hypothesis (PFH) 29
2.3.5 Summary of the Four Hypotheses on the Order of Difficulty of Relative Clauses 30
2.4 Previous Studies on Processing English Relative Clauses 31
2.4.1 Recognition of Relative Clauses in English 32
2.4.2 Error Analysis 38
3.1 Research Questions 41
3.2 Subjects 43
3.3 Research Design 44
3.4 Measuring Instruments 45
3.4.1 Grammaticality Judgment Task 46
3.4.2 Sentence Combination Task 47
3.5 Analysis Procedures 48
4.1 RC Production in Grammaticality Judgment Task and Sentence Combination Task 54
4.1.1 Grammaticality Judgment Task 54
4.1.2 Sentence Combination Task 61 Statistical Results 61 Discussion of the Production by Each Level 66
4.2 Avoidance Strategies 69
4.3 Analysis of Students’ Compositions 74
5.1 The Findings of the Study 80
5.2 The Limitations of the Study 82
5.3 Contributions 82

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