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論文中文名稱:圖像組織法對台灣國中生的英文閱讀及學習態度影響之行動研究 [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
論文英文名稱:Action Research—the Effects of Graphic Organizers on Taiwanese Junior High School Students' Achievement in and Attitudes towards English Reading [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
院校名稱:臺北科技大學
學院名稱:人文與社會科學學院
系所名稱:應用英文系碩士班
畢業學年度:103
畢業學期:第二學期
中文姓名:吳偉華
英文姓名:Wei-Hua Wu
研究生學號:102548515
學位類別:碩士
語文別:英文
口試日期:2015/07/02
指導教授中文名:洪媽益
指導教授英文名:Michael Tanangkingsing
口試委員中文名:楊韻華;雷貝利
口試委員英文名:Yun-Hua Yang;Barry Lee Reynolds
中文關鍵詞:圖像組織法行動研究閱讀理解能力學習成就閱讀策略
英文關鍵詞:graphic organizersaction researchreading comprehension proficiencyacademic performancereading strategies
論文中文摘要:一般而言,有效率的學習需要搭配適合的策略,而其中一種方式便是能用視覺意象將相關概念結合的圖像組織法。本行動研究是在探討使用圖像組織法增進台灣以英語為外語學習者的英語閱讀理解能力。接受實驗的對象為56名七年級學生,其中29名學生和27名學生分別來自兩個由教學者亦即研究者所教導的班級,這兩個班級分別為實驗組及對照組。
首先,教學者亦即研究者用問卷調查的方式了解實驗組學生的英語學習背景。接著是進行實驗組及對照組學生的兩項學前能力檢測;這兩項前測實施的目的是要了解兩組學生在圖像組織法教學進行前的英語學習成就及能力表現。然後實驗組學生在教學者亦即研究者的漸進式的指導下進行六堂課的圖像組織法的學習。之後實驗組學生進行圖像組織法學習的問卷調查。緊接著兩組學生進行期末測驗,該測驗的成績用來當作後測依據。然後研究者訪談從實驗組中隨機抽樣的八名受試者。
社會科學統計程序軟體(SPSS)用來分析兩組學生的前後測成績,實驗組學生的兩次問卷中封閉式問題的回答結果,以及實驗組學生的圖像組織法學習單的得分。量化分析結果進一步加以比較並發現其中的異同。此外,問卷中開放式問題的回答,八位受試者的訪談結果,和教學者亦即研究者的教學日誌紀錄結果以質化分析方式呈現。質化及量化分析並行的目的是要增進科學研究的客觀性。
研究結果顯示,實驗組學生最偏愛自行創作組織圖來輔助英語課文閱讀;而在組織圖運用方面,以教師提供的以及部分填空式的組織圖表現明顯優於自行創作的組織圖。此外,實驗組學生和控制組學生的後測結果明顯優於第二次前測結果,但是兩組學生的後測比較結果以及後測和75分的期望值比較結果均未達顯著性。研究結果進一步顯示,實驗組學生對圖像組織法融入英語課文學習表示感興趣,而且表示會進一步運用此學習法學習其他科目;另外實驗組學生也提出了在學習過程中所遭遇到的一些阻礙英語閱讀進行的困難點。
即使在學習過程中遇到不利學習的情況,該研究讓大部分的實驗組學生在學習時能採用較佳的閱讀策略,更使它們意識到培養良好的英語學習習慣的重要性。研究者也期望本行動研究能啟發那些有熱忱接受嶄新的教學法的教學者。
論文英文摘要:It is generally believed that effective learning requires suitable approaches, one of them being the use of graphic organizers, a way of visual representation to connect concepts that are associated with each other. This study is an action research project on implementing graphic organizers to enhance Taiwanese EFL (i.e., English as a foreign language) learners’ English reading comprehension proficiency. A total of 56 seventh graders, with 29 of them assigned to the experimental group (i.e., EG) and 27 of them forming the control group (i.e., CG), participated in this study; both groups of students came respectively from two intact classes which were taught by the teacher-researcher.
First of all, a questionnaire survey about the EG’s pre-intervention English learning experience was carried out. Next, two pre-tests were given to both the EG and the CG to discern their English academic performance before the intervention program. Then, the EG was given six periods of instruction on graphic organizer designs and relevant knowledge, as well as related practices through systematic guidance from the teacher-researcher. Afterwards, a post-intervention survey was conducted to find out the efficacy of the graphic organizer instruction. The subsequent phase of the project was a post-test using the final exam, which was given to both groups of students. Following the post-test was the interview designed for eight carefully selected EG participants.
Data collected from the pre-test and the post-test results of both groups, the responses to the closed-response items in the two questionnaire surveys, and the graphic organizer worksheets were analyzed statistically by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Quantitative analysis results were further compared and scrutinized to find out congruency and discrepancy. Additionally, qualitative analysis was conducted using the results from the answers to the open-response items in the two questionnaire surveys, the eight representative interviewees’ replies, and the teacher-researcher’s teaching journals that recorded the graphic organizer intervention procedures. Both types of analysis were used to complement each other in expectation of scientific objectivity.
Results of the study showed that the EG participants performed better in ready-made or partial graphic organizer practices than in self-constructed ones, which were nevertheless the most preferred by most of the EG students. Besides, there was a significant difference between the EG’s and the CG’s post-test scores and the second pre-test results, but not between the EG’s and the CG’s post-test results, or between the EG’s and the CG’s post-test scores and the pre-determined value of 75. Moreover, enthusiasm for the graphic organizer instruction was identified, and tendencies towards the future application of the spatial display discovered. Further, serious obstacles to the development of expertise in English reading existed in parallel with the EG’s interest in the intervention program.
Notwithstanding the disruptive situations, it is apparent that this practical research study has assisted most of the EG participants with their adoption of better reading strategies and has raised their awareness of cultivating good English learning habits. Last of all, it is expected that this research plan should enlighten those who are enthusiastic about a whole new pedagogical practice.
論文目次:中文摘要 i
ABSTRACT iii
Acknowledgements v
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables xii
List of Figures xv
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background Problems 1
1.2 Motivation of the Study 2
1.3 Purpose of the Study 3
1.4 Significance of the Study 4
1.5 Organization of the Study 5
Chapter 2 Literature Review 7
2.1 Overview 7
2.2 Attitudes 7
2.2.1 Basic Concepts of Attitudes 8
2.2.2 Attitudes and Learning Proficiency 8
2.2.3 The Staying Power of Attitudes on Language Performance 9
2.3 Action Research 10
2.3.1 Definitions of Action Research 10
2.3.2 Functions of Action Research 11
2.3.3 Characteristics of Action Research 12
2.3.4 Processes for Doing Action Research 13
2.3.5 Action Research and Instruction 13
2.4 Strategy Use in Language Learning 15
2.4.1 Basic Concepts of Learning Strategies 15
2.4.2 Language Learners’ Application of Learning Strategies 17
2.5 Graphic Organizers 19
2.5.1 Definitions of Graphic Organizers 19
2.5.2 Features of Graphic Organizers 20
2.5.3 Types of Graphic Organizers 22
2.5.4 Graphic Organizers and Learning 22
2.5.4.1 Effects of Graphic Organizers on Vocabulary Acquisition 23
2.5.4.2 Effects of Graphic Organizers on Text Comprehension 24
2.5.4.3 Effects of Graphic Organizers on Meaning Retention 26
2.5.4.4 The Efficacy of Self-constructed Graphic Organizers 27
2.5.4.5 Application of Graphic Organizers in Action Research 28
2.5.4.6 Effects of Graphic Organizers on Learning Attitudes 30
2.6 Summary 32
Chapter 3 Methodology 36
3.1 Participants 36
3.2 Materials 38
3.3 Intervention Procedures 39
3.3.1 The Planning Stage—Identifying Problems and Conceptualizing Solutions 40
3.3.2 The Action Stage—Graphic Organizer Intervention 42
3.3.3 The Observation Stage—Data Collection and Evaluation 52
3.3.4 The Reflection Stage—Meditation and Modification of the Plan 52
3.4 Data Collection 53
3.4.1 Academic Achievement 53
3.4.2 Performance of Graphic Organizer Designs 55
3.4.3 Questionnaire Surveys 56
3.4.4 The Post-intervention Interview 56
3.4.5 Teaching Journals 57
3.5 Data Analysis 58
3.5.1 Quantitative Analysis 58
3.5.2 Qualitative Analysis 61
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion of the Quantitative Analysis 64
4.1 Students’ Attitudes towards the Implementation of Graphic Organizers 64
4.1.1 The Pre-intervention Questionnaire Survey 64
4.1.2 The Post-intervention Questionnaire Survey 68
4.2 Effects of Graphic Organizers on English Reading Comprehension 74
4.2.1 The First Pre-test 74
4.2.2 The Second Pre-test 76
4.2.3 The Post-test 78
4.2.4 The Participants’ Graphic Designs 83
Chapter 5 Results and Discussion of the Qualitative Analysis 94
5.1 Students’ Attitudes towards English Learning 94
5.1.1 The Pre-intervention Questionnaire Survey 94
5.1.2 The Post-intervention Questionnaire Survey 103
5.1.2.1 Perspectives of High- and Intermediate-level Students 103
5.1.2.1.1 Perceived Profit of the High- and Intermediate-level EG Learners 103
5.1.2.1.2 Impediments to English Reading Detected by the High- and Intermediate-level EG Learners 105
5.1.2.1.3 High- and Intermediate-level EG Learners’ Views about the Practicality of Graphic Organizers 106
5.1.2.1.4 High- and Intermediate-level EG Learners’ Outlook for English Reading Instruction 107
5.1.2.2 Perspectives of Underachievers 109
5.1.2.2.1 Perceived Profit of the Low-level EG Learners 110
5.1.2.2.2 Impediments to English Reading Detected by the Low-level EG Learners 111
5.1.2.2.3 Low-level EG Learners’ Views about the Practicality of Graphic Organizers 112
5.1.2.2.4 Low-level EG Learners’ Outlook for English Reading Instruction 114
5.2 Students’ Attitudes towards the Graphic Organizer Instruction 115
5.2.1 The Post-intervention Interview with High- and Intermediate-proficiency Students 116
5.2.1.1 High- and Intermediate-level EG Students’ Viewpoints about Graphic Organizers in English Reading 118
5.2.1.2 Problems Encountered by the High- and Intermediate-level EG Students in English Reading 121
5.2.1.3 Advancement in English Reading Observed by the High- and Intermediate-level EG Students 124
5.2.1.4 Future Use of Graphic Organizers for the High- and Intermediate-level EG Students 126
5.2.2 Underachievers’ Post-intervention Interview Results and In-class Participation 131
5.2.2.1 Low-level EG Students’ Viewpoints about Graphic Organizers in English Reading 133
5.2.2.2 Problems Encountered by the Low-level EG Students in English Reading 135
5.2.2.3 Advancement in English Reading Observed by the Low-level EG Students 139
5.2.2.4 Future Use of Graphic Organizers for the Low-level EG Students 140
Chapter 6 Conclusion 148
6.1 Summary of the Major Findings 149
6.1.1 EG Learners’ Progress in Concept Organization 149
6.1.2 EG Learners’ English Academic Performance 151
6.1.3 EG Learners’ Perceptions of Graphic Organizers in English Reading 152
6.1.4 EG Learners’ Inclinations to Apply Graphic Organizers to Other Learning Aspects 152
6.2 Pedagogical Implications 153
6.3 Limitations of the Study 156
6.4 Suggestions for Future Research 157
References 160
Appendix A The Reading Passage in Each Unit 178
Appendix B The Pre-intervention Questionnaire 181
Appendix C The First Pre-test 182
Appendix D The Second Pre-test 184
Appendix E Unit 3 Graphic Organizer Intervention Lesson Plan and Worksheet 188
Appendix F Unit 4 Graphic Organizer Intervention Lesson Plan and Worksheet 191
Appendix G Unit 5 Graphic Organizer Intervention Lesson Plan and Worksheet 195
Appendix H Unit 6 Graphic Organizer Intervention Lesson Plan and Worksheet 199
Appendix I Unit 7 Graphic Organizer Intervention Lesson Plan and Worksheet 202
Appendix J Unit 8 Graphic Organizer Intervention Lesson Plan and Worksheet 206
Appendix K The Post-intervention Questionnaire 210
Appendix L The Post-test 211
Appendix M The Consent Form 215
Appendix N Questions for the Post-intervention Interview 216
Appendix O Teaching Journals 217
Appendix P The Graphic Organizer Rubric 238
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