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論文中文名稱:高科技產業含汞燈管流佈與管理之研究 [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
論文英文名稱:A Study on the Flow and Management of Mercury-Containing Lamps in High Tech. Industry [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
院校名稱:臺北科技大學
學院名稱:工程學院
系所名稱:環境規劃與管理研究所
中文姓名:孔慧雯
英文姓名:Huei-Wen Kong
研究生學號:93608024
學位類別:碩士
語文別:中文
口試日期:2006-06-13
論文頁數:122
指導教授中文名:張添晉
口試委員中文名:白子易;游勝傑;陳孝行
中文關鍵詞:物質流分析流佈冷陰極燈管紫外線燈管曝光燈
英文關鍵詞:Material Flow Analysis (MFA)FateCold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL)UV lampSuper High Pressure mercury lamp (SHP)
論文中文摘要:汞為全球列管之有毒物之ㄧ,但仍是許多產品及工業製程上不可或缺的原料。我國高科技產業正蓬勃發展,製造液晶顯示器、半導體或印刷電路板時皆會消耗含汞燈管,當燈管廢棄後釋放至環境的汞,對於人類及其他生物體影響極大,因此,汞之使用及流佈之調查推估更為重要。
本研究採用物質流分析方法,針對國內高科技產業之冷陰極管、紫外線燈以及曝光燈等含汞燈管,進行汞物質流佈之調查推估,並探討目前廢汞燈之申報回收及管理制度。根據本研究親自訪問環保署、中華民國外貿協會、國內含汞燈管製造商、進口商、使用汞燈之高科技產業以及廢汞燈處理機構等調查及推估顯示,2004年透過國內自行生產及國外進口之冷陰極管、UV燈以及曝光燈之含汞量為1,387公斤,其中,96公斤出口至其他國家,12公斤包含在冷陰極管廢棄不良品中,1,279公斤則存在高科技產業應用之汞燈中;經使用消耗後進入事業廢棄物清除處理體系之廢燈管所含廢汞量為181公斤,其中國內處理、境外處理及空氣逸散之汞量分別為80公斤、92公斤以及9公斤,其比例分別佔44%、51%以及5%,然而仍有97公斤之廢汞並未回收處理,隨一般垃圾處置或遭棄置至環境。
冷陰極管一般做為液晶顯示器(桌上型電腦液晶螢幕、筆記型電腦及液晶電視)之背光模組發光源,本研究推估我國銷售使用之液晶顯示器含汞量約304公斤,當液晶顯示器相關產品廢棄後,其有毒物之危害以及有價金屬之回收,為重要挑戰之ㄧ,此外,藉由研發及生產技術突破,開發無汞替代光源,勢必為未來降低汞負荷量之主要趨勢。
論文英文摘要:Mercury is classified as a dangerous chemical in the world, but still is an important material of industrial products. The high tech. industry of domestic is growing vigorously, to manufacture the liquid crystal display(LCD), semiconductor and wafer use mercury-containing lamps. When the mercury-containing lamps are discarded, all the mercury gets into the environment, which is harmful to human beings and other organisms. Therefore, it is an important issue to investigate and evaluate the fate of mercury.
This study investigated the fate of high mercury-contained lamps, such as cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), ultraviolet lamps (UV lamps), and super high pressure mercury lamps (SHPs), in high tech. industries by using material flow analysis (MFA) method. Several organizations related to mercury-containing lamps, such as Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan External Trade Development Council, the light sources manufacturers, mercury-containing lamps importers, and high tech. industrial users with waste mercury-containing lamps treatment facilities were interviewed in this study. According to this survey, the total mercury contained in CCFLs, UV lamps, and SHPs produced by domestic industries and imported from other countries was 1,387 kg in 2004. Regarding the amount of mercury contained in lamps, 96 kg was exported, 12 kg was the waste from defective CCFLs, and 1,279 kg of mercury contained was used in the high tech. industries. In addition, 181 kg mercury of used by high tech. industries was well treated in the industrial waste treatment system. It was calculated that 80, 92, and 9 kg mercury was used for domestic treatment, offshore treatment and emission in air, which correspond to 44%, 51% and 5% of the 181 kg of wasted mercury, respectively. Unfortunately, 97 kg of waste mercury was not suitably treated.
Generally, the CCFLs are components of LCD(computer-monitor products and LCD TV)back light module. According to the estimation, it has been revealed that 304 kg mercury contained in CCFLs used as components of LCD products, were for domestic sale. When the LCD products were discarded, the danger and recovery of the toxicants and valuable metals, are an important challenge. In addition, by the technology breakthrough to develop the mercury-free lamp, it is a major trend to lower the mercury loading to prevent the hazard in the future.
論文目次:目 錄

中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
致謝 iv
目錄 v
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
照片目錄 ix
第一章 前言 1
1.1研究動機 1
1.2研究目的 2
1.3研究流程及範疇 3
1.3.1研究流程 3
1.3.2研究範疇 4
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1汞基本特性及危害 6
2.1.1汞之基本特性 6
2.1.2汞之來源及危害 7
2.1.3全球汞之流佈現況 10
2.2物質流分析理論基礎探討 15
2.2.1物質流分析定義 15
2.2.2國外相關應用研究 21
2.2.3含汞燈管物質流分析之案例 25
2.3高科技產業含汞燈管應用探討 31
2.3.1種類及特性分析 31
2.3.2含汞燈管應用之製程探討 34
2.4國內外廢燈管回收清理之法規與執行方式 40
2.4.1國內現況 40
2.4.2美國現況 41
2.4.3歐盟現況 42
第三章 研究方法 45
3.1物質流分析流程及步驟 45
3.2文獻蒐集及實地訪視 49
第四章 結果與討論 53
4.1國內含汞燈管進口與廢棄分析 53
4.1.1進口分析 53
4.1.2廢棄分析 57
4.2國內高科技產業含汞燈管流佈推估 62
4.2.1冷陰極燈管 62
4.2.2曝光燈管 65
4.2.3紫外線燈管 66
4.2.4燈管流佈之質量平衡 68
4.3國內高科技產業含汞燈管物質流佈之整合分析 69
4.3.1國內高科技產業含汞燈管物質流分析 69
4.3.2我國與丹麥含汞燈管物質流探討 73
4.3.3燈管之含汞濃度判斷分析 76
4.4高科技產業廢汞燈管回收及管理探討 77
4.4.1回收及管理方式 77
4.4.2現況問題探討 81
第五章 結論與建議 85
5.1結論 85
5.2建議 86
參考文獻 87
附錄
A 訪視評估紀錄 93
B 2002至2004年事業機構產出含汞燈管之申報量排名 117

表目錄

表2.1 汞之特性及宿命 7
表2.2 國內外燃煤電廠之汞排放量 9
表2.3 全球初級汞產量表 12
表2.4 物質流分析定義 18
表2.5 物質流分析類型 20
表2.6 達到環境永續之物質流基本類型 21
表2.7 物質流分析之文獻彙整 23
表2.8 物質流分析之重要研究成果彙整 24
表2.9 丹麥燈源消耗量及平均含汞濃度 27
表2.10 2001年丹麥含汞燈管汞物質流推估彙整表 28
表2.11 美國明尼蘇達州含汞燈管汞物質流彙整表 30
表4.1 2002至2005年9月汞化合物進口量彙整表 54
表4.2 2002至2005年9月含汞燈管進口量彙整表 55
表4.3 含汞或螢光粉廢照明光源之申報量 58
表4.4 各產業別之廢含汞燈申報量統計表 59
表4.5 12家受訪機構之廢汞燈申報量統計表 61
表4.6 2004年我國四大面板廠商之產銷統計 64
表4.7 2004年國內高科技產業含汞燈管物質流分析彙整表 71
表4.8 我國與丹麥含汞燈管之汞消耗量比較表 75
表4.9 冷陰極管、曝光燈及UV燈管綜合比較表 77
表4.10 廢汞燈管回收管理之問題探討及改善建議 84

圖目錄

圖1.1 研究流程圖 5
圖2.1 汞與環境之關係圖 9
圖2.2 全球汞流佈示意圖 10
圖2.3 全球汞供應情形 11
圖2.4 2000年全球汞消耗情形 13
圖2.5 1990年全球汞排放分佈圖 14
圖2.6 物質流佈平衡圖 16
圖2.7 冷陰極管基本構造 32
圖2.8 冷陰極管發光原理 32
圖2.9 曝光燈基本構造 33
圖2.10 進步機曝光示意圖 35
圖2.11 冷陰極管製造流程 37
圖2.12 薄膜電晶體液晶顯示器製造流程 38
圖2.13 積體電路製造流程 39
圖2.14 瑞典無汞環境示意圖 44
圖2.15 瑞典汞末端儲存示意圖 44
圖3.1 物質流分析流程圖 48
圖3.2 含汞燈管進出口資料查詢流程 50
圖3.3 產出廢含汞燈管相關資料查詢流程 51
圖3.4 實地訪視流程圖 52
圖4.1 冷陰極管進口、使用與廢棄流佈圖 64
圖4.2 曝光燈進口、使用與廢棄流佈圖 66
圖4.3 UV燈管進口、使用與廢棄流佈圖 68
圖4.4 2004年國內高科技產業含汞燈管汞物質流分析圖 72
圖4.5 廢汞燈管之整體申報及清除處理流程 79

照片目錄

照片4.1 廢冷陰極管廠內暫存(a) 80
照片4.2 廢冷陰極管廠內暫存(b) 80
照片4.3 廢汞燈廠內暫存區(a) 80
照片4.4 廢汞燈廠內暫存區(b) 80
照片4.5 廢曝光燈包裝與標示情形 80
照片4.6 廢UV燈管 80
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