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論文中文名稱:漢英網路語言中支持策略跨語言研究 [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
論文英文名稱:A Cross-linguistic Study of Supportive Strategies in Chinese and English Internet Languages [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
院校名稱:臺北科技大學
學院名稱:人文與科學學院
系所名稱:應用英文研究所
畢業學年度:98
出版年度:99
中文姓名:許芝軒
英文姓名:Chih-Hsuan Hsu
研究生學號:97548002
學位類別:碩士
語文別:英文
口試日期:2010-06-03
論文頁數:167
指導教授中文名:洪媽益
指導教授英文名:Michael Tanangkingsing
口試委員中文名:張郇慧;謝富惠
口試委員英文名:Claire Hsun-Huei Chang;Fuhui Hsieh
中文關鍵詞:支持網路電腦中介溝通跨語言情態漢語英語
英文關鍵詞:supportInternetcomputer-mediated communication (CMC)cross-linguisticmodalityChineseEnglish
論文中文摘要:跨語言研究中的言語行為(speech act)是學界重視的議題,文獻普遍指出與漢語使用者相比,英語使用者較常表達個人情感並較常採用直接語言策略(如Brew et al., 2001; Chang, 2009; Tang & Zhang, 2009)。由於言語行為充滿情態特徵(張立新與張權,2007),在進行言語行為之研究時應將情態一併探討。情態表達主觀評估,屬於人類普遍共有的語意語法範疇,並充當口語與書面語中重要的人際標記(如Papafragou, 2000; Nuyts, 2001; Verstraete, 2001; Hsieh, 2008)。
自電腦中介溝通普及以來,學者已廣泛發現此溝通方式獨特的語言特徵(如Barnes, 2003; Condon & Čech, 1996; Ma, 1996; Yates, 1996)。然而,漢語及英語溝通策略在電腦中介環境中的差異仍尚待考察。此外,情態在電腦中介語言中的功能亦缺乏探索。因此本研究旨在比較網路使用者如何利用網路留言板對台灣及美國的公眾人物給予支持,並檢視漢語及英語情態詞在網路社群中如何達到加強人際互動的功能,語料取自兩位台灣運動員及兩位美國運動員留言板上表達支持的留言。
本文的質化和量化分析指出,漢語及英語網路使用者在支持策略的選用展露低語境/個人主義文化和高語境/集體主義文化之間的明顯差異。漢語支持者通常採用能縮短社會距離的策略表達支持,如請求、祈願、說教、承諾、行動與呼籲。英語支持者則主要擇取情感較豐富和較能傳達正面語氣的策略,如推崇、祝福、愛慕及感謝。然而,預備及補償行為(preparatory and compensatory move)研究結果反映網路溝通於不同語言之間的相似性。例如:漢語及英語支持者皆常叫喚被支持者的名字或親密暱稱,亦常表露身分、使用非正式的告別辭與省略正式的問候及署名。
研究結果表明義務情態動詞「要」和don’t在表達要求、建議與鼓勵的支援策略中具有促進親密程度的效果;認知情態動詞「會」和will,強化支持者給予的祝福與承諾,其中「會」常與認知情態副詞「一定」連用;動力情態動詞「能」表述支持者願望實現的可能性,「可以」描述祝福預期的結果,can則能夠實現這兩種功能。情態詞的分布顯示情境因素造成顯著的語言變異,網路語言有別於口說與書寫語言,尤其在情態詞的選擇上受限,且意義相同的情態詞扮演不同的語用角色。
結論顯示網路特質和文化背景對網路支持的直接和正式與否皆佔有重要地位,結論並暗示語言學習者對語言文化及溝通媒介的了解有助在網路社群建立及掌握成功的跨文化溝通,此文化、媒體與語言的互動關係為漢語及英語教學提供實際的例證。
論文英文摘要:Speech acts in cross-linguistic research have received much scholarly attention in face-to-face conversational discourse. It has been widely accepted that, compared with Chinese speakers, English speakers tend to express their feelings more freely and use direct languages more frequently (e.g., Brew et al., 2001; Chang, 2009; Tang & Zhang, 2009).
As often being expressed through speech acts (Zhang & Zhang, 2007), modality could be given more concern in the study of speech acts. As a universal semantic-grammatical category underlining subjective assessment, modality has established itself as an interpersonal marker central to spoken and written language use (e.g., Papafragou, 2000; Nuyts, 2001; Verstraete, 2001; Hsieh, 2008).
The recent emergence and development of computer-mediated communication has led to researchers’ general recognition of its unique linguistic practice (e.g., Condon & Čech, 1996; Ma, 1996; Yates, 1996; Barnes, 2003). However, little attention has so far been paid to the disparities between Chinese and English communicative strategies in computer-mediated settings. Moreover, the function of modality in computer-mediated language is poorly understood. This study thus aims to compare how Internet users give support to Taiwanese and U.S. public figures via personal guestbooks, and to investigate how Chinese and English modality serve to enhance interpersonal interaction in Internet communities. The data were drawn from two Taiwan and two U.S. websites open for fans of individual well-known athletes.
Qualitative and quantitative analyses indicate different degrees of preference in supportive strategies between Chinese and English Net users, reflecting a sharp contrast between low-context/individualistic cultures and high-context/collective cultures. In particular, Taiwanese athletes tend to receive support directed toward a shortened social distance, such as making requests, making wishes, giving preaches, giving promises, using performatives, and making appeals. Conversely, U.S. athletes are primarily supported by more expressive and positive strategies, such as giving praise, blessings, adoration, and thanks. Nevertheless, the preparatory and compensatory moves that precede and follow support exhibit cross-linguistic similarities in online communication. For instance, both Taiwanese and U.S. athletes are commonly greeted by first names or intimate nicknames. Supporters of both languages also prefer revealing their social identity, using informal valedictions, and omitting formal salutations or signatures.
Results also indicate a predominant use of the deontic modal verb yao ‘must’ and don’t for enhancing intimacy in supportive strategies such as request, suggestion, and encouragement. The prevalent occurrence of the epistemic modal verb hui ‘will’ and will strengthen supporters’ blessings and promises, in which hui ‘will’ is typically qualified by the epistemic adverb yiding ‘certainly.’ The dynamic modal verb neng ‘can’ denotes probability of the realization of supporters’ wishes, while keyi ‘can’ predicts conceivable outcomes of these wishes. Can performs these two functions. These modal distributions reveal a salient linguistic variation among oral, written, and electronic discourses introduced by contextual factors. Internet language in particular features a considerably limited range of modal choice, where elements of identical semantic categorization take on distinct pragmatic roles.
The conclusions of this study indicate that Internet characteristics are as significant as cultural backgrounds in influencing the directness and formality of online support. This further suggests that the awareness of language cultures and communication media is crucial for language learners in building and mastering successful intercultural communication in networking communities. Therefore, this study may provide practical material and information for both English and Chinese language instructors to guide learners to understand the interaction between culture, media, and language.
論文目次:Table of Contents

ABSTRACT (English) i
ABSTRACT (Chinese) iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vi
Table of Contents x
List of Tables xiv
List of Figures xv
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivations 1
1.2 Purposes 3
1.3 Research Questions 3
1.4 Significance of the Present Study 4
1.5 Definition of Terms 4
1.6 Organization of the Thesis 6
Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 Overview 8
2.2 Contrast Between Chinese and English 8
2.2.1 Contrast Between Chinese and English Cultures 8
2.2.2 Contrast Between Chinese and English Speech Acts 11
2.3 Modality 14
2.3.1 Modality Types 14
2.3.2 English Modality 16
2.3.3 Chinese Modality 20
2.3.4 Contrast Between Chinese and English Modality 22
2.3.5 Applied Studies in Modality 27
2.4 The Internet and CMC 29
2.4.1 CMC 30
2.4.2 CMC Versus FtF Communication 31
2.4.3 Social Support and Interpersonal Relationship in CMC 33
2.4.4 Internet Language 33
2.5 Summary 34
Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY 37
3.1 Overview 37
3.2 Sampling 37
3.3 Data Collection 43
3.4 Data Analysis 46
Chapter 4 RESULTS 47
4.1 Overview 47
4.2 Supportive Strategies 47
4.2.1 Head Acts 48
4.2.2 Preparatory and Compensatory Moves 50
4.3 Contrast Between Chinese and English Supportive Strategies 51
4.3.1 More Prevalent Head Acts in Chinese 52
4.3.1.1. Directive 53
4.3.1.2. Preach 54
4.3.1.3. Performative 55
4.3.1.4. Appeal 56
4.3.1.5. Wish 56
4.3.1.6. Promise 57
4.3.2 More Prevalent Head Acts in English 58
4.3.2.1. Praise 59
4.3.2.2. Blessing 60
4.3.2.3. Adoration 61
4.3.2.4. Gratitude 63
4.3.3 Preparatory and Compensatory Moves 63
4.3.3.1. Appellation 64
4.3.3.2. Identity 65
4.3.3.3. Greeting 66
4.3.3.4. Signature 67
4.4 Modality in Supportive Strategies 68
4.4.1 Modals in Directive 68
4.4.2 Modals in Blessing 73
4.4.3 Modals in Wish 77
4.4.4 Modals in Promise 80
Chapter 5 DISCUSSIONS 85
5.1 Overview 85
5.2 Effects of Cultural Backgrounds and Communication Media on Strategy Use 85
5.3 Modality as Interpersonal Marker 88
Chapter 6 CONCLUSIONS 94
6.1 Overview 94
6.2 Summary of Findings 94
6.3 Implications 96
6.4 Suggestions for Further Research 97
REFERENCES 99
APPENDIX 115
A. Data from Chih-Chia Chang’s guestbook 115
B. Data from Jung-Jan Chan and Chia-Jung Chuang’s guestbook 130
C. Data from Derek Jeter’s guestbook 137
D. Data from Serena Williams’ guestbook 145
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