現在位置首頁 > 博碩士論文 > 詳目
  • 同意授權
論文中文名稱:安全帶與墜落姿勢對人體加速度之影響 [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
論文英文名稱:Effects of Safety Belt and Falling Posture on Body Accelerations [以論文名稱查詢館藏系統]
院校名稱:臺北科技大學
學院名稱:管理學院
系所名稱:工業工程與管理系碩士班
畢業學年度:101
出版年度:102
中文姓名:王毓娸
英文姓名:Wang-Yu Chi
研究生學號:100378011
學位類別:碩士
語文別:中文
口試日期:2013-07-11
論文頁數:54
指導教授中文名:陳協慶
口試委員中文名:梁曉帆;林彥輝
中文關鍵詞:墜落姿勢安全帶物理量測
英文關鍵詞:Fallposturesafety beltmechanical measurement
論文中文摘要:本研究目的在於了解不同的墜落方式與安全護具對人體之影響。研究於「墜落實驗平台」上,使用荷重元及三軸加速度計,分別測量人偶使用2種安全帶(背負式、繫身式)在2種墜落條件(踏空墜落、後仰墜落)下,1.5m墜落過程之繩索張力、軀幹加速度。實驗結果顯示不同墜落情境與安全帶之組合,會明顯影響繩索張力及軀幹之運動,在背負式踏空墜落組合下產生最大繩索張力與人體加速度峰值,相較之下繫身式安全帶有較小的繩索張力與較大的擺盪。在後仰墜落狀況下,最大繩索張力明顯低於踏空墜落,但造成人偶有較大的身體擺盪及旋轉,以至造成其肢體與實驗平台結構體間之碰撞。本研究結果可提供相關人員作為個人安全防護具選用之參考。
論文英文摘要:This study investigates the effects of falling condition and safety device on a human body. Researchers employed a load cell and an tri-axial accelerometer to measure rope tension and trunk accelerations of a falling dummy with an 1.5m dropping distance. Four testing conditions combined with 2 safety devices, a full body harness and a half waist safety belt, and 2 falling conditions, fall form floor opening or backward topple, were conducted on a platform for fall experiment. Experimental results show different fall combination significantly affect safety-rope tension and dummy movement. The combination of full body harness and fall form floor opening condition results in the greatest peak rope tension and trunk acceleration. Comparatively, a half waist safety belt produces less peak rope tension but greater swing movement. The peak rope tension measured under fall form backward topple condition is significantly smaller than that measured under fall form floor opening. Nevertheless, fall form backward topple condition causes greater dummy swing and rotation and results in collisions of dummy and platform structure. Finding of this study provides related professionals with useful information of personal safety device for working at heights.
論文目次:摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究架構 3
第二章 文獻探討 4
2.1 國內外墜落危害現況 4
2.2 墜落災害分析與防護措施 5
2.3 國內外墜落與碰撞之相關研究 7
2.2.1 人體碰撞相關研究 7
2.2.2 特定高度墜落分析 8
2.2.3 安全防護具測試 10
第三章 研究方法 12
3.1 人偶墜落實驗設備 12
3.1.1 人偶模型 12
3.1.2 墜落平台 13
3.1.3 感測元件及訊號擷取裝置 16
3.1.4 安全帶 19
3.1.5 高速攝影機 20
3.2 實驗設計與實驗步驟 21
3.2.1 實驗設計 21
3.2.2 實驗步驟 23
3.3 資料處理 25
第四章 研究結果 28
4.1 安全繩索張力 28
4.2 落體加速度 31
4.3 落體速度 37
4.4 落體碰撞墜落實驗平台 41
4.5 落體翻轉擺盪現象 42
第五章 討論 46
5.1 安全繩索張力 46
5.2 落體加速度 48
5.3 落體速度 48
5.4 落體碰撞墜落實驗平台 49
參考文獻 51
論文參考文獻:[1] 施歌,世界十大最危險職業盤點,中國經濟網,2012年9月4日,取自:http://ppt.cc/Cl50。
[2] 行政院勞工委員會,行政院勞工委員會勞工檢查處,中華民國一百年檢查年報 2012。
[3] 勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所,防護具選用技術手冊-安全帶IOSH84-T-007,行政院勞委會勞工安全衛生研究所,1995年06月01日。
[4] 沈育霖、林義量,防墜落器及安全性能測試研究,行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所,2009。
[5] 何先聰、劉玉文、蔡一主,「安全帶懸吊生理反應」,勞工安全衛生研究所季刊,台南,2009,第17捲第2期,第221-238頁。
[6] 行政院勞工委員會,行政院勞工委員會勞工檢查處,中華民國一百零一年檢查年報,2013。
[7] Chi. and Chang. and Tin., "Accident patterns and prevention measures for fatal occupational falls in the construction industry," Applied Ergonomics, vol.36, 2005 , pp. 391-400.
[8] 行政院勞工委員會,行政院勞工委員會勞工檢查處,2012年5月30日。
[9] Chi. and Wu., "Fatal occupational injuries in Taiwan-relationship between fatalityrate and age," SafetySci, vol.27, 1997, pp. 1-17.
[10] Sorock. and Smith. and Goldoft., "Fatal occupational injuries in the New Jersey construction industry, 1983 to 1989," Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol.35, 1993, pp. 916–921.
[11] 行政院勞工委員會,行政院勞工委員會勞工檢查處,中華民國九十七年檢查年報,2009。
[12] 行政院勞工委員會,行政院勞工委員會勞工檢查處,中華民國九十八年檢查年報,2010。
[13] 行政院勞工委員會,行政院勞工委員會勞工檢查處,中華民國九十九年檢查年報,2011。
[14] Chi. and Chang. and Hung., "Significant industry-source of injury-accident type for occupational fatalities in Taiwan," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol.34, 2004, pp. 77-91.
[15] 張庭彰,重大職災暨營造業墜落之情境分析與預防措施,博士論文,國立台灣科技大學,台北,2004。
[16] 江旺宗,營造業墜落意外事件模式及相關勞安法規之探討,碩士論文,國立高雄第一科技大學,高雄,2007。
[17] 紀佳芬、劉國青、周東諭,各國墜落職災類型比較及防災策略分析,行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所,2011。
[18] Cattledge et al., "Nonfatal occupational fall injuries in the west Virginia construction industry," Accid. Anal. and Prev , 1996, pp. 655-663.
[19] 行政院勞工委員會,營造業安全衛生設施標準,行政院勞工委員會勞工衛生研究所,2007。
[20] Fall Protection Guidelines, "Manitoba Labour and Immigration Division," http://www.oshforeveryone.org/wsib/default.html, 2003.
[21] 李珮瑜,高架作業墜落分析與配戴安全帶效用研究,碩士論文,中山醫學大學,台中,2012。
[22] 陳協慶,人體墜落與相關安全防護具測試,行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所,2011。
[23] Drury. and Brill., "Human factors in consumer product accident investigation," Hum. Factors, vol.25, no.3, 1983, pp. 329-342.
[24] 紀佳芬、楊漢聲、陳文雄、劉國青、張庭彰、丁心逸,營造業墜落重大墜落之情境分析與預防策略,勞工安全衛生研究季刊,第16卷,第4期,2008,第383-400頁。
[25] Linder, A., "A new mathematical neck model for a low-velocity rear-end impact dummy: evaluation of components influencing head kinematics," Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol.32, no.2, 2000, pp. 261-269.
[26] Huang, T.J. and Wu, J.T., "An ATD neck model based on multi-body dynamics subjected to rear impact.," Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, vol.29, no.3, 2009, pp. 152-157.
[27] Gong, S.W. and Lee, H.P. and Lu, C., "Computational simulation of the human head response to non-contact impact," Computers & Structures, vol.86, no.7 and no.8, 2008, pp. 758-770.
[28] Bostrom, O. and Fredriksson, R. and Haland, Y. and Jakobsson, L. and Krafft, M., et al., "Comparison of car seats in low speed rear-end impacts using the BioRID dummy and the new neck injury criterion (NIC)," Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol.32, no.2, 2000, pp. 321-328.
[29] Corfman, T.A. and Cooper, R.A. and Fitzgerald, S.G. and Cooper, R., "Tips and falls during electric-powered wheelchair driving: effects of seatbelt use, legrests, and driving speed," Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol.84, no.12, 2003, pp. 1797-1802.
[30] Dsouza, R. and Bertocci, G., "Development and validation of a computer crash simulation model of an occupied adult manual wheelchair subjected to a frontal impact.," Medical Engineering & Physics, vol.32, no.3, 2010, pp. 272-279.
[31] McElhaney, J.H. and Richardson, W.J. and Myers, B.S., "Dynamic responses of the head and cervical spine to axial impact loading," Journal of Biomechanics, vol.29, no.3, 1996, pp. 307-318.
[32] O'Riordain K. and Thomas, P.M. and Phillips, J.P. and Gilchrist, M.D., "Reconstruction of real world head injury accidents resulting from falls using multibody dynamics," Clinical Biomechanics, vol.18, no.7, 2003, pp. 590-600.
[33] Bertocci G.E. and Pierce, M.C. and Deemer, E. and Aguel, F., "Computer simulation of stair falls to investigate scenarios in child abuse," Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, vol.155, 2001, pp. 1008-1014.
[34] Bertocci G.E. and Pierce, M.C. and Deemer, E. and Aguel, F. and Janosky, J.E. and Vogeley, E., "Using test dummy experiments to investigate pediatric injury risk in simulated short-distance falls," Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, vol.157, 2003, pp. 480-486.
[35] Bertocci G.E. and Pierce, M.C. and Deemer, E. and Aguel, F. and Janosky, J.E. and Vogeley, E., "Influence of fall height and impact surface on biomechanics of feet-first free falls in children," Injury, vol.35, no.4, 2004, pp. 417-424.
[36] Cory C.Z. and Jones, M.D., "Development of a simulation system for performing in situ surface tests to assess the potential severity of head impacts from alleged childhood short falls," Forensic Science International, vol.163, no.1 and no.2, 2006, pp. 102-114.
[37] Schulz B.W. and Lee W.E.III and Lloyd, J.D., "Estimation, simulation, and experimentation of a fall from bed.," Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, vol.45, no.8, 2008, pp. 227-1236.
[38] Petrone, N. and Tamburlin, L. and Panizzolo, F. and Atzori, B., "Development of an instrumented anthropomorphic dummy for the study of impacts and falls in skiing.," In Procedia Engineering, vol.2, no.2, The Engineering of Sport 8 - Engineering Emotion, 2010, pp. 2587-2592.
[39] Kuk, M.G. and Kwon, S.J. and Tak, T.O., "Dynamic analysis of seatbelt systems with anti-inertial release mechanisms.," International Journal of Automotive Technology, vol.9, no.5, 2008, pp. 593-599.
[40] Fuhrman, S.I. and Karg, P.E. and Bertocci, G.E., "Effect of wheelchair headrest use on pediatric head and neck injury risk outcomes during rear impact," Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol.40, no.4, 2008, pp. 1595-1603.
[41] Kapoor, T. and Altenhof, W. and Wang, Q. and Howard, A., "Injury potential of a three-year-old Hybrid III dummy in forward and rearward facing positions under CMVSS 208 testing conditions," Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol.38, no.4, 2006, pp. 786-800.
[42] 陳皇賢,營建勞工工作負荷與姿勢評估之研究-以系統模板為例,台中,碩士論文,朝陽科技大學,2009。
[43] 陳文斌,墜落人體動作分析,行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所,2012。
論文全文使用權限:同意授權於2013-08-22起公開